The Early Mars: New Evidence Points to Conditions Conducive to Emergence of Life

 

 

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The fate of water on Mars has been energetically debated by scientists because the planet is currently dry and cold, in contrast to the widespread fluvial features that etch much of its surface. Scientists believe that if water did once flow on the surface of Mars, the planet’s bedrock should be full of carbonates and clays, which would be evidence that Mars once hosted habitable environments with liquid water. Researchers have struggled to find physical evidence for carbonate-rich bedrock, which may have formed when carbon dioxide in the planet’s early atmosphere was trapped in ancient surface waters. They have focused their search on Mars’ Huygens basin in the Southern Highlands (above).

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The Faintest Galaxy of the Early-Universe Discovered --"Could Solve One of the Biggest Mysteries in Astronomy"

 

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An international team of scientists, including two professors and three graduate students from UCLA, has detected and confirmed the faintest early-universe galaxy ever, behind a galaxy cluster known as MACS2129.4-0741, which could help explain how 'cosmic dark ages' ended. Using the W. M. Keck Observatory on the summit on Mauna Kea in Hawaii, the researchers detected the galaxy as it was 13 billion years ago. The results were published in the Astrophysical Journal Letters.

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Dark Matter Galaxies Detected --"How is It Possible for Galaxies So Diffuse and Dark to Exist"

 

 

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Galaxies, in all their forms from spirals to ellipticals from giants to dwarfs have been widely studied over the past Century. To the surprise of the scientific community last year a new type of galaxy was discovered, residing in a galactic megalopolis known as the Coma Cluster, some 300 million light years away from Earth. Even though they are very numerous, these ultradiffuse galaxies have not been noticed until now because they are very fain. Their stars as spread over a very large area, which makes it particularly difficult to distinguish them from the sky background.

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"Cosmic Leapfrog" --Will China's Enormous 'Super Collider' Reveal Unknowns of the Universe? (A 'Galaxy' Insight)

 

 

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“So far the Standard Model seems to explain matter, but we know there has to be something beyond the Standard Model,” said Denise Caldwell, director of the Physics Division of the National Science Foundation. “This potential new physics can only be uncovered with more data that will come with the next LHC run.” The Standard Model contains no explanation of gravity, which is one of the four fundamental forces in the universe. It also does not explain astronomical observations of dark matter, a type of matter that interacts with our visible universe only through gravity, nor does it explain why matter prevailed over antimatter during the formation of the early universe. The small mass of the Higgs boson also suggests that matter is fundamentally unstable.

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Far-Future of Space Travel? The Planet's First Experimental Wormhole Created (Monday's Most Popular)

 

 

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"If you have a wormhole, then you can turn them into time machines for going backward in time," says Caltech's Kip Thorne. "Wormholes" are cosmic tunnels that can connect two distant regions of the universe, or even to a parallel universe, and have been popularised by the dissemination of theoretical physics and by works of science fiction like Stargate, Star Trek or, more recently, Interstellar.

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"Attempt No Journey There" --Swarm of 10,000 Black Holes and Neutron Stars Orbit Milky Way's Supermassive Black Hole (Weekend Feature)

 

 

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“The giant black holes in the cores of galaxies, a million to 20 billion times heavier than the Sun, therefore, cannot have been born in the death of a star. They must have formed in some other way, perhaps by the agglomeration of many smaller black holes; perhaps by the collapse of massive clouds of gas.” ― Kip S. Thorne, The Science of Interstellar.

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NASA/Hubble: "Far-Future Civilizations Will be Clueless How the Universe Began and Evolved" (Weekend Feature)

 

 

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A big advantage to our civilization arising early in the evolution of the universe is our being able to use powerful telescopes like Hubble to trace our lineage from the big bang through the early evolution of galaxies. The observational evidence for the big bang and cosmic evolution, encoded in light and other electromagnetic radiation, will be all but erased away 1 trillion years from now due to the runaway expansion of space. Any far-future civilizations that might arise will be largely clueless as to how or if the universe began and evolved.

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Antarctica Discovery --"Reveals New Insights Into Space Weather"

 

 

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New space weather observations will allow researchers to watch how the behavior of the sun and the solar wind -- an unbroken supersonic flow of charged particles from the sun -- changes over time and how the Earth's magnetic field responds to solar wind variations. The observations help build a detailed, reliable model of space weather.

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Enigma! --"Large Group of Stars are Dying Prematurely in M4 Cluster"

 

 

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"Globular clusters are some of the oldest objects in the Universe. Although we have some ideas for what is going on in them, every time we look carefully we find something unexpected. They are both fascinating and frustrating at the same time," said John Lattanzio at Australia's Monash University.

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