"The Dark-Matter Paradox" --A Tiny Galaxy Without Any May Be Proof That It Exists (Today's Top Space Headline)
Today's "Planet Earth Report" --Scientists Game the Unthinkable: "What Happens If Terrorists Nuke Washington D.C.?" (WATCH Video)

"Do Dark Photons Exist?" --Dark Matter May the Tip of an Invisible Universe of Unknown Forces  




Dark matter is aptly named. It emits no light and interacts with visible matter only via gravity. But dark matter might be only the tip of an invisible universe of unknown forces. This possibility has led to a hunt for “dark photons.” Such photons are analogous to ordinary photons, but they are exchanged among particles of dark matter, and according to some models, they may have mass.

Evidence for dark photons would be a game changer, says the journal Physics, revealing that dark matter leads a secret life that is much more complex than assumed by most theories. The latest search for dark photons at the Large Hadron Collider, however, has come up empty.


Now, reports Phys.org, A team of researchers from the University of California and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has conducted an ultra-precise measurement of the fine-structure constant, and in so doing, have found evidence that casts doubts on dark photon theory. In their paper published in the journal Science, the group describes their measurement process and what they found by using it.

The fine-structure constant is a number that represents the force of electromagnetic interactions between charged particles, such as those that are involved in keeping electrons from traveling outside of their atoms. Up until now, it has been derived using the magnetic properties of electrons and calculations that are still considered to be theoretical. As the researchers note, more precise measurements allow for testing the Standard Model of particle physics. To that end, they sought to measure the constant through more direct means.

To accomplish this feat, they aimed a laser at cesium-133 atoms (matter-wave interferometry) to force them into quantum superposition and then took a close look at what happened between them as they relaxed back to their natural state. The interference that occurred, the team reports, revealed the speed at which the atoms traveled when they were struck by the laser—they used that number to calculate the fine-structure constant. They claim their work has allowed for calculating the fine-structure constant to better than one part per billion.

The researchers report that the number they calculated was closely matched the theory, which offers some confirmation of theories that suggest electrons are not made up of smaller, unknown particles. But it also casts doubt on theories surrounding the existence of dark photons. On the bright side, because the number they calculated was close to that theorized, but not exact, there is still room for other particle theories to explain the discrepancy.

The image above shows a dwarf galaxy forming when the Universe was half its current age. The dark matter is in red, the stars in yellow and the gas in blue. Galaxy formation occurs along dark matter filaments, and is a violent process of merging of gas clouds, spawning stars deep within their sheltered cores. (Bourke, Crain and Duffy)

The Daily Galaxy via Physics and Phys.org 


Dark photons fill 'empty' space and are displaced by visible matter. What is referred to geometrically as curved space-time physically exists in nature as the state of displacement of the dark photons. The state of displacement of the dark photons is gravity. The state of displacement of the dark photons is the quantization of gravity.

Why don't they just call dark matter by what it really is - black holes!

A photon carrying a different value for the Planck would be "Dark" for us. A little different value for the Planck makes it almost dark: the neutrino.

Other universes exist superimposed on ours. They all have different values for the Planck, so they don't interact with ours.

I have read the paper by the team, and so far I am wiling to believe into their research. They have put tremendous amount of time to discover and start a debate of Dark method.

I think that at a certain galactic distance, gravity reverses and the galaxies begin pushing against each other. This would do away with cosmological expansion, dark matter, and dark energy. This is a claim that can be easily tested:
A revised gravity equation looks like this (I have made an adjustment compared to my last version):

F = (1.047 X 10^-17) m1m2 [-cos(Θ)] / r^2 where tan Θ = r / (1.419 X 10^22)

I have attached a more detailed pdf file explaining how I justify gravity behaving in this way. Please do not dismiss the idea until you see the justification. By playing with the constants, this equation can be fitted and tested against the data of galactic motion. It means that at a certain distance, gravity will reverse and the galaxies will be pushing against each other. This pressure against each other does away with the need for dark matter or dark energy in cosmology.

So the equation can be tested against current data to see if it fits. This equation also predicts that galaxies near the edge of the universe will be deformed -- concave with the concavity pointing towards the center of the universe.

This equation also predicts the existence of isolated galaxies that are far away from other galaxies, that would behave normally without the need to posit dark matter. An example of this type of galaxy is NGC1052–DF2 . Talked about in this article:


So what I am asking is very precise, very narrow, very testable: Someone please test this equation to see if slight adjustment of the constants will account for galactic motion or not. If it does, then proceed to the rest of the theory.

If it cannot, then the theory can be dismissed. Either way, I would like to know -- but I would not be convinced with a simple "absurd!" or dismissal unless it has been tested out.

If it is true that the motion of galaxies can be modeled in this way, I would ask that you take a look at the explanation in this theory:


Simple solution is that quantum mechanics can be applied to big masses also like earth http://vixra.org/abs/1804.0139

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