Stephen Hawking: Wake Up, Science Deniers! --"Earth is Morphing into Venus" (WATCH Today's 'Galaxy' Stream)
Today's "Planet Earth Report" Headline --"If We Learn to Engineer Animals to Be as Smart as Humans—Should We?"

Today's Top Science Headline --"Stop Saying That Dinosaurs Went Extinct. They Didn't"



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Everyone knows that about 65 million years ago, a massive asteroid hit the Earth and wiped out all the dinosaurs. Except, well, not so much. Most species of dinosaurs went extinct in the aftermath of the impact, but some survived. Those survivors continued on, breeding and evolving over the epochs. Today, there are at least 10,000 species of dinosaur that roam the planet, and they come in a huge diversity of sizes, shapes, and colors. We call them — you guessed it — birds.

Birds aren’t like dinosaurs, writes Jacqueline Ronson in today's Inverse, they are dinosaurs. And the easiest way to get your head around this fact is to understand what being a dinosaur entails.

 

Phylogenetic is a fancy word for how we classify animals based on genetic relationships between species. The goal of phylogenetics is to produce a phylogeny, a family tree of life. Scientists are finding that the most useful way to group organisms is by clade, which includes all descendants of a given common ancestor. The principles of phylogenetic analysis suggest this is the only correct way of classifying species.

 

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The alternative is to group by class — that is, related organisms that display certain characteristics. The problem with this method is that an organism could get kicked out of a group if it evolves to no longer exhibit a distinguishing feature of its ancestors. This approach gets messy pretty quick — it would be like redrawing your whole family tree because you have blue eyes but none of your ancestors did.

So, back to dinosaurs: Dinosaurs are organisms that belong to the clade Dinosauria. Hundreds of millions of years ago, the first dinosaur was born from two not-quite-dinosaur parents. All of the descendants of this original dino are dinosaurs, no matter how varied or diverse. And birds, as it turns out, are among them.  Image above shows what Tyrannosaurs Rex really looked like.

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Image top of page: With thanks to HT Photo

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Comments

you sit on a throne of lies.

And you, sir, sit on a different throne - the toilet, with you non-scientific and superstitious beliefs.

Of course they haven't! How esle do we logically explain Trump being elected our President

If you believe in common descent, than nothing has ever gone extinct. This seems like a pretty silly way of thinking about extinction however.

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