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"Everybody Knew It Had To Be There" --Missing Half of Normal Matter in the Universe Has Been Detected




“Everybody sort of knows that it has to be there, but this is the first time that somebody – two different groups, no less – has come up with a definitive detection,” says Ralph Kraft at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Massachusetts.

Observations of galaxies and galaxy clusters in the local universe can account for only 10% of the baryon content -made of particles called baryons rather than dark matter- inferred from measurements of the cosmic microwave background and from nuclear reactions in the early Universe. Locating the remaining 90% of baryons has been one of the major challenges in modern cosmology. The missing links between galaxies have finally been found. This is the first detection of the roughly half of the normal matter in our universe – protons, neutrons and electrons – unaccounted for by previous observations of stars, galaxies and other bright objects in space.


Models of the universe say there should be about twice as much ordinary matter out there, compared with what we have observed so far. Now, two separate teams found the missing matter – made of particles called baryons rather than dark matter – linking galaxies together through filaments of hot, diffuse gas.

“The missing baryon problem is solved,” says Hideki Tanimura at the Institute of Space Astrophysics in Orsay, France, leader of one of the groups. The other team was led by Anna de Graaff at the University of Edinburgh, UK.

“There’s no sweet spot – no sweet instrument that we’ve invented yet that can directly observe this gas,” says Richard Ellis at University College London. “It’s been purely speculation until now.” Because it's not quite hot enough for X-ray telescopes to observe.

Both teams took advantage of a phenomenon called the Sunyaev-Zel’dovich effect that occurs when light left over from the big bang passes through hot gas to find another way to definitively show that these threads of gas are really there. As photons of light travel, some of them scatters off the electrons in the gas, leaving a dim patch in the cosmic microwave background from the birth of the cosmos that were to faint to be mapped by the Planck satellite in 2015.

Both teams selected pairs of galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey that were expected to be connected by a strand of baryons. They stacked the Planck signals for the areas between the galaxies, making the individually faint strands detectable en masse.

Tanimura’s team stacked data on 260,000 pairs of galaxies, and de Graaff’s group used over a million pairs revealing firm evidence of gas filaments between the galaxies. Tanimura’s group found they were almost three times denser than the mean for normal matter in the universe, and de Graaf’s group found they were six times denser confirming that the gas in these areas is dense enough to form filaments.

“We expect some differences because we are looking at filaments at different distances,” says Tanimura. “If this factor is included, our findings are very consistent with the other group.”

“This goes a long way toward showing that many of our ideas of how galaxies form and how structures form over the history of the universe are pretty much correct,” says Ralph Kraft.

Journal references: arXiv, 1709.05024 and 1709.10378v1

The Daily Galaxy via New Scientist and NextBig Future  and 


Bravo! Now will this debunk "darkmatter" completely, or only partially?

The gases, are they charged plasma? How do I tell a charged capacitor from a discharged capacitor even at close range by sight? There is mass equivalency in potential energy of a charge field.

Supposition on top of unproven sudo science.
How do you get a Picture of intergalactic space without the interference from our own galaxy.
And you can Count the number of particles ...BS.

Why would anyone want to debunk Dark Matter?

Secondly, this isn't really news. Researchers have been showing maps of these filaments and highways between galaxies for years.

Scott. Since you can't even spell "pseudo", I think I'll stick with the people who actually know what they're talking about on this one.

This has nothing to do with dark matter. This is baryonic matter, which is what atoms are made of. Dark matter is not baryonic, no one knows what it is, but apparently some kind of particles that we can't see. So this doesn't get us any closer to understanding dark matter, it's a totally different subject.

Wow! We finally have an explanation for the mystery box known as 'dark matter'! Oh wait, this is old news....

Wow, thanks for the spelling lesson Mike. Now why don't you use your sage knowledge and provide an answer to the posed question?

I think everybody who post on this site should state their age, and disallow anybody under six......Cheers, Alan (74 3/4)

I believe that the take-away here is that the conclusions drawn from the data indicates that there is no need for the mysterious "dark matter" to explain the discrepancy between what Relativity tells us we should see, and what we actually observe.

First of all ,only half the missing matter was found to be Baryonic matter.The other half is probably
half is what is called dark matter and dark energy.This sounds about right in terms of distribution of normal matter (Baryonic) and invisible matter (dark matter and dark energy).We know that there is a force that keeps galaxies from flying apart and holds the cosmic web together.We know the universe is expanding if not accelerating. AND IT'S NOT GRAVITY CAUSING THIS TO OCCUR! Maybe there is a fifth force out there. We simply don't know.But have no doubt it is there.

By the way. Delete the second (half is) in my comment.It should read.....The other half is probably what is called dark matter and dark energy.


Guys, this obervation is another hint for the existence of Dark Matter, not the opposite.

Astrophysicists have a model, and in this model a fraction of the matter in the Universe is "usual matter". The problem was simple : we couldn't see that much "usual matter". What this team has seen is half of the missing "usual matter".

So, no, the "other half" isn't "probably dark matter or dark energy". No "half of the missing matter found isn't baryonis matter". They just found half of the missing baryonis matter.

Please educate yourself and read the paper before showing your ignorance.

When the gas is accelerated, its radiation is confined by its Rindler horizon and can be hidden from the observer if he is far enough. This is the main source of dark matter (J. Perdijon, "La matière noire", Désiris, 2015).

I stand corrected.
LET ME RE-COMMENT.Since 2.5% of baryonic matter was missing(unless this has changed according to Nasa). Less than 1.25% of normal matter was found.the total amount of normal matter is approx. 5% .The other 95%(again according to Nasa)is something else.

Happy Now....

There are lot of good comments above. I think Sbabo David comments above are the most accurate.

Alfred, there is a theory stating exactly what Dark Matter is made of, and I believe this theory is correct. You will be hearing about about it in a year or so as the main stream media starting labeling someone as 'the living Einstein of our time'. Watch for it.

Decade by decade the puzzle pieces are coming together slowly.

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