## Supernova! Our Solar System's "Shocking" Origin Theory --"New Supporting Evidence"

##### August 03, 2017

According to one longstanding theory, our Solar System's formation was triggered by a shock wave from an exploding supernova. The shock wave injected material from the exploding star into a neighboring cloud of dust and gas, causing it to collapse in on itself and form the Sun and its surrounding planets. New work from Carnegie's Alan Boss offers fresh evidence supporting this theory, modeling the Solar System's formation beyond the initial cloud collapse and into the intermediate stages of star formation.

An interesting component of chondrites' makeup is something called short-lived radioactive isotopes. Isotopes are versions of elements with the same number of protons, but a different number of neutrons. Sometimes, as is the case with radioactive isotopes, the number of neutrons present in the nucleus can make the isotope unstable. To gain stability, the isotope releases energetic particles, which alters its number of protons and neutrons, transmuting it into another element.

Some isotopes that existed when the Solar System formed are radioactive and have decay rates that caused them to become extinct within tens to hundreds of million years. The fact that these isotopes still existed when chondrites formed is shown by the abundances of their stable decay products--also called daughter isotopes--found in some primitive chondrites. Measuring the amount of these daughter isotopes can tell scientists when, and possibly how, the chondrites formed.

The colors represent the relative amounts of short-lived radioactive isotopes, such as iron-60, injected into a newly formed protoplanetary disk (seen face on with the protostar being the light purple blob in the middle) by a supernova shock wave.

A recent analysis of chondrites by Carnegie's Myriam Telus was concerned with iron-60, a short-lived radioactive isotope that decays into nickel-60. It is only created in significant amounts by nuclear reactions inside certain kinds of stars, including supernovae or what are called asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars.

Because all the iron-60 from the Solar System's formation has long since decayed, Telus' research, published in Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, focused on its daughter product, nickel-60. The amount of nickel-60 found in meteorite samples--particularly in comparison to the amount of stable, "ordinary" iron-56--can indicate how much iron-60 was present when the larger parent body from which the meteorite broke off was formed. There are not many options for how an excess of iron-60--which later decayed into nickel-60--could have gotten into a primitive Solar System object in the first place--one of them being a supernova.

While her research did not find a "smoking gun," definitively proving that the radioactive isotopes were injected by a shock wave, Telus did show that the amount of Fe-60 present in the early Solar System is consistent with a supernova origin.

Taking this latest meteorite research into account, Boss revisited his earlier models of shock wave-triggered cloud collapse, extending his computational models beyond the initial collapse and into the intermediate stages of star formation, when the Sun was first being created, an important next step in tying together Solar System origin modeling and meteorite sample analysis.

"My findings indicate that a supernova shock wave is still the most-plausible origin story for explaining the short lived radioactive isotopes in our Solar System," Boss said.

Boss dedicated his paper to the late Sandra Keiser, a long-term collaborator, who provided computational and programming support at Carnegie's Department of Terrestrial Magnetism for more than two decades. Keiser died in March.

The Daily Galaxy via Carnegie Institution

Image credit: courtesy of Alan Boss; top of page, Original Mockups

I believe the Milk way center gives birth to the Sun because the Sun is orbiting to the Milk way center.

This conclusion is supported by our new findings( see the article on Facebook, Photo, Jihai Zhang )

Abstract

Supported by real data, this article derives and proves relationships for any two gravitationally-bound objects in single or multiple systems in the universe. These findings have implications for simpler and more accurate calculations in related practical applications. Normally, relative error is less than 3.35%.

M=k*R*(V*V)= 0.00000250863*R*(V*V) (1)

Equation (1) presents the relationship between gravitationally-bound point and central mass.

Where M is the mass of an orbiting center, R is the distance from the orbiting point 1 to the centre, V is cross-radial velocities with distances of R to the centre respectively, unit of M is Earth mass, unit of R is the distance from Earth to the Sun, unit of V is km/s.

According to equation(1), once we know any two of the cross-radial velocity V, the central mass M or the distance R, we can calculate the corresponding distance R or central mass M or cross-radial velocity V of a moon, a planet or a star.

Because k is an universal constant. Now we can use equations (1) to explain why there are many exoplanets orbit their central stars at very high speed V in a very short distance R.

This finding is mathematically proved and supported by real data including data from exoplanets. It proved physical law is universal, is necessary and helpful to accurately identify habitable planet.

Posted by: JIHAI ZHANG | August 03, 2017 at 08:41 PM

So the Christian Bible is probably correct, we're made of dust.

Posted by: robert | August 04, 2017 at 05:21 AM

To view the article clearly, please click the photo in my Facebook ( JIHAI ZHANG).

One can also contact me: z.jihai@gmx.com

Posted by: JIHAI ZHANG | August 04, 2017 at 10:48 AM

Conclusion:

Our article finds and establishes the theoretical/ideal relationships between two gravitationally-bound points in single or multiple systems in the universe, and uses real data to verify the calculation errors (the real statistic impact of the N body issue, N = 9, 8 planets + Sun) in these relationships.

Normally, when the orbiting trajectory of a gravitationally-bound point approximately equals to a circle, the theoretical/ideal relationships between two gravitationally-bound points can be expressed by equations (7), (8),(16) and (17) with about 3.35% accuracy( average: 0.6%). The N body issue is real however, its impact is limited / even negligible.

Equation (8) presents the relationship between gravity and centrifugal force. According to equation (8), gravity and centrifugal force change in the same direction at the same ratio.

Equation (17) presents a proven relationship between gravitationally-bound point and central mass, one of the properties of gravity field. Especially, the mass of the orbiting body, m is excluded.

According to equation (17), once we know any two of the cross-radial velocity V1, the central mass M1 or the distance R1, we can calculate the corresponding distance R1 or central mass M1 or cross-radial velocity V1 of a moon, a planet or a star.

Because k is an universal constant. Now we can use equations (17) to explain why there are many exoplanets orbit their central stars at very high speed V in a very short distance R.

These findings proved physical law is universal. They are necessary and helpful to accurately identify habitable planet.

Posted by: JIHAIZ | August 09, 2017 at 03:04 PM