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LIGO's Gravitational Waves May Point to a Universe Beyond




“Fifteen years ago, when you talked about the multiverse, the attitude of many physicists was just ridicule,” says Alexander Vilenkin, professor of physics and director of the Institute of Cosmology at Tufts University. “But there has been a great change in attitude.” The concept of a multiverse is controversial and, at times, contentious. Today, many scientists are understandably skeptical. A few even reject the notion. But for others like Vilenkin, the arguments for the multiverse are so compelling, they demand science take it seriously.

Infinite 'bubble universes,' filled with alternate versions of ourselves or nothing at all, might exist right alongside our own, according to Vilenkin, who introduced the idea of quantum creation of the universe from a quantum vacuum. 

Fewer than 100 years ago, people thought the Milky Way was the whole universe. Then it was discovered that galaxies exist beyond the confines of our home galaxy. Now, it is thought that the Big Bang might not be the singular beginning of all space and time. There may have been other events producing other universes: a multiverse.

What lies beyond the visible bounds of our universe. “When I teach elementary courses, I usually say the universe is everything that there is,” said Vahe Petrosian, a Stanford professor of physics and of applied physics. “If you go to the edge of it and there is still some more, that is part of the universe, too.”

In late 2015, Vilenkin and his colleagues proposed another way to determine if the multiverse exists: black holes. If our universe is just one of an infinite number, then once inflation stopped in ours, pockets within it that had been inflating would have then collapsed into black holes. The longer each pocket inflated, the more massive the black hole.



The paper co-authored by Vilenkin describes the possibility that bubble universes were created inside of the visible universe during the Big Bang. Many of these universes collapsed and formed black holes, Vilenkin said. If the black holes are big enough, they may have inflating universes inside of them, and these expanding universes would be connected to the visible universe by wormholes.

Inflation would thus leave behind a population of black holes with a telltale range of masses. In principle, by measuring the ripples in space and time produced in black hole collisions—like the gravitational waves discovered by LIGO last year—astronomers can take a census of black hole masses and see if they were created by inflation, which would imply the multiverse.

But there is also a universe that is limited by what people can see: the visible universe. Around 13.8 billion years ago there was a Big Bang, a really hot, dense phase when the universe started expanding. Everything in the visible universe has to be younger than that. But, theoretically, people suspect that the universe seen with telescopes – what we see within the horizon of the Big Bang – may not be all there is.

“You say this is the beginning, and then you ask, ‘What was before that?’ If you go to some edge, there is always the question, ‘Is there something beyond that edge?'” Petrosian said.

The theory of eternal inflation, proposed in part by Vilenkin, could begin to answer these questions. Eternal inflation says that space is always expanding overall, but some pockets of space will expand and create universes while others stop expanding. The universes that form are called “bubble universes” because they bubble up where energy is being concentrated.

“We used to think that beyond the visible universe there was simply more of the same,” said Vilenkin. “More planets and stars and galaxies. But other universes may have different physical laws.”

Not all bubble universes are created equally. If the mass of a proton or electron were tweaked, the universe might not have stars, planets or life. Some of the universes expand, contract and collapse in a very short time before forming everything. Some universes are like ours.

It’s possible that sometimes these bubbles interact, and that one will interact with our bubble and produce observational evidence. “Say, what are the possibilities, what happens if these bubbles interact, what sort of information will it give us,” says Petrosian.

Despite the similarities between Vilenkin’s theory and  the film Interstellar, many scientists have hope for the multiverse theory.

“Once a reasonable idea comes, you can never say it’s wrong,” affirms Petrosian. “And this is not too crazy. We will probably never have answers to these questions, but it is important to ask them. So we do ask, and sometimes we are successful.”

The Daily Galaxy via Stanford University and NPR Science Friday


In my book, "From the Inside of Quarks and up Beyond the Universe", describe a world with many Universes and many Anti-universes. Perhaps the image I describe approaches more to the image of the real world.

Bubble universes floating in...what? We can hypothesize further, infinitely.
That would make us truly small, infinitely small.
But if we are infinitely small, then small has no meaning. What is small when a thought can encompass a universe? Big, small, far, near, young, old, beginning, end have no meaning in the context of the infinite.

Sorry. Too much coffee.

“Once a reasonable idea comes, you can never say it’s wrong,”

Sure you can. You find contrary evidence. It's how science works.

"But for others like Vilenkin, the arguments for the multiverse are so compelling, they demand science take it seriously."

First, the arguments aren't compelling. Second, no, show some evidence (math is not evidence). Once you can point beyond twisted math to something that can be examined, then we can talk serious.

...inter-Universe travel constant acceleration (parallel universes)... Big-Bang!!...whether separation among galaxies, where all stay in the expansive surface of sphere, go accelerating by the supposed antigravity of the supposed dark energy (perhaps accelerating because they attrack with the galaxies from the Neighbor Universe...) perhaps expand until it collides with another shock wave from another Big-Bang of multi-Universe...(why was there clustering all the Universe´s ENERGY in 1 only sphere?, does not only there is 1 star...multiple spheres of energy here and there...each sphere a Local Universe with its Big-Bang...so, the UNIVERSE would be like a galaxy with its stars, each "star" a Local Universe)...who divided up the same infinite EMPTY SPACE (as a group of balloons, each one separated from each other, to be swelling...the space inside and out, the infinity Empty Space...and each balloon an independent Local Universe)... And if Gravitation shall get to stop the expansion, it´s evident that the fragments approximation (galaxies in apocalyptic collisions) would start among them with those nearest over the sphere´s surface, forming hyper-massive "clumps" of Matter ever increasing until the starts of major gravitational attraction with other "clumps" from the opposite end of sphere´s diameter already implosive...starting implosion in terminal phase of our and then uninhabitable Local Universe (maybe by then would have completed the inter-Universe exodus and there would be no one in this)... Exit to direction at 180º from center increasing our radius, distance from the center where there was the Big-Bang, in the opposite direction going towards the center of sphere would get more "inside" of our own Universe instead of going out. Maybe "nearer" the next Universe going in the same direction of expansion, that going at counter-expansion to "antipodes" (Galaxy Abell 1835...13200 million light years... to 1 Million G (!!!), 9800 kms/sec², at halfway maximum hyperluminal-speed = 3.7 light-years/second (!!!), total travel time = 226 years) of our... The Travel of all travels... Ship "Exodus-1"...heading 180º from center towards the Infinity...constant acceleration until to detect at front galaxies with strong differential deflection, discounting our own hyperluminal-speed, toward the Violet...the shock wave from our New Universe come to greet us...(and, no sooner said than done, launched themselves towards the gloomy darkness of Infinity)... Parallel Universe, we only carry the truth... Here we go...goooooo►...

Could 'black holes' have rings, like Saturn? I think so.

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