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Mystery of the Giant ExoPlanets --An Update

 

 

Researchers-Discover-Gas-Giant-GU-Psc-b

 

 

There are 565 exoplanets currently known that are as massive as Jupiter or bigger, about one third of the total known, confirmed exoplanet population. About one quarter of the massive population orbits very close to its star, with periods of less than ten days (the Earth takes about 365 days to orbit the Sun). Heated by the nearby star’s radiation, these giants are often called hot Jupiters.

Despite the large and diverse population of known giant exoplanets, only two of them orbit older, evolved stars. How and why there are so many giant planets close to their host stars is still a mystery: perhaps over time they migrate in from more distant parts of their planetary system, or instead perhaps they are born there? Evolved stars that host close-in, giant exoplanets provide a valuable wrinkle to the picture, and some clues: these stars, as they age, cool off and swell in diameter, could disrupt or even swallow any nearby planets. Finding examples allows astronomers to refine their models of planet formation and evolution.

CfA astronomers Dave Latham, David Kipping, Matthew Payne, David Sliski, Lars Buchhave, Gilbert Esquerdo, Michel Calkins, and Perry Berlind and their colleagues have discovered two new giant exoplanets around an evolved star. Kepler-432b is about 5.4 Jupiter-masses in size and orbits every 52.5 days – it is the third known example of a close-in giant around an evolved star; Kepler-434c is 2.4 Jupiter-masses and orbits much farther away, in 406 days. The host star, Kepler-432 has a mass of about 1.35 solar-masses, an age of about 3.5 billion years, and it has just finished its stable lifetime burning hydrogen and begun to swell in size, with a current diameter of 4.16 solar-diameters.

The astronomers found that the massive inner planet is strange in at least three ways. First, it is not highly irradiated or hot, unlike typical hot Jupiters. Its orbit is highly eccentric (meaning that its distance from the star varies considerably over an orbit), suggesting that it may have migrated to this orbit.

Finally, its spin axis happens to be closely aligned to the star's, another curious property, especially since it is usually not found in planets that have migrated. The results highlight the remarkable range of exoplanet properties and possible formation mechanisms, and imply either that Kepler-432b is an intrinsically rare case, or that it represents a common class of exoplanets that are usually destroyed as their host star ages, but which in this case has so far managed to survive - though its days are probably numbered (perhaps only another few hundred million years).

The Daily Galaxy via cfa.harvard.edu

Image credit: Artist’s view of a gas-giant exoplanet planet. (© Lucas Granito)

Comments

According to this article, I guess that 565 exoplanets are very likely from the outside. When they passed within gravity range of stars, the star's gravity changed their tracks and turned them into surrounding stars even at very close range. Some of the exoplanets very close to the stars may sooner or later being merged with the stars. However, due to the continuing decline in the mass of the stars, those exoplanets far away from the stars may eventually left the stars. I believe these can happen to both old or new stars.

Furthermore, I guess the majority or all of the 565 extrasolar planets have no moons. Because of the large mass of these 565 exoplanets, most of them should have at least a moon, if not, they are more likely from the outside. This may make it easier to distinguish the exoplanets from the local planets.

Reference:

1.http://ezinearticles.com/?Two-Stages-in-the-Formation-of-the-Solar-System&id=8958086

2.http://ezinearticles.com/?Our-Earth-Is-a-Miracle-of-the-Universe&id=8875016

I forgot to mention that the age of a local planet should be younger than the host star.

Introduction

According to current understanding, the Sun, Earth and Moon are all formed through gravitational accretion. However, since the Earth is circling the Sun and the Moon is circling the Earth, based on gravity, the earth should move closer to the Sun and the Moon should move closer to the Earth. In other words, the Sun should not let the Earth exist and the Earth should not let the Moon exist. Known fact opposes the theory therefore, it can be argued that current understanding is incorrect.

To correctly understand the formation of the solar system, it is key to distinguish the formation of a star from the formation of a planet.

The formation of the Sun

When the size of an object is greater than 5 to 10 times the size of the Earth (threshold), significant accretion / condensation is initiated due to gravity and the first disk is formed to feed the central object.

As mass increases, the centre gravitational force increases, resulting in more objects being captured by the first disk just like making a snowball. This further increases the pressure in the central core of the object, changing it from high mass to low mass, and eventually to H2. This process drives the core temperature higher and higher, finally initiating thermonuclear fusion.

Due to the fact that the increase in the inward force of gravity is much faster than the outward force generated by thermonuclear fusion, the central object continues to grow, until everything is captured within the first disk. Then, since there is nothing to feed the central object, the first disk disappears and the central object stop growing.

However, the central object will continue the process of Condensation, and its core will continue to grow until the outward force generated by thermonuclear fusion becomes greater than the inward gravitational force, in which case all substances melt to give rise to the birth of a new star- the sun.

The formation of the Solar System

Shortly after, because of differing temperatures and pressures at different points / layers of the Sun, explosions occur, just like launching artificial satellites. These huge burning fragments all circle the sun due to gravity and thus form the second disk.

These broken burning pieces continue their inherited thermal-nuclear fusion and even create their own satellites-moons and form their own disks until they cool down. In this way, planets were born and the Solar System was formed.

Evidences that the Sun created the Earth and the Earth created the Moon

Sun was formed 4.567 billion years ago, Earth was formed 4.54 billion years ago and the Moon is thought to have formed not long after the Earth. This time sequence is consistent with the idea that in the second disk, the Sun was formed first and shortly afterwards created all the planets, including their satellites in the solar system.

Both the Earth and the Moon have a burning core. Earth's surface was considered to be a liquid, having a very high temperature 4.5 billion years ago. Some other planets and their satellites also have a burning core. This is consistent with the idea that they inherited thermal-nuclear fusion from the sun.

Furthermore, in our solar system, there is no planet or object moving inward to the Sun, and both the distance between the Sun and the Earth and between the Earth and the Moon is growing (15cm per /year and 4cm per /year respectively) too [1]. It is likely that the Sun will be left with none of the original bodies in orbit around it [2]. This is consistent with the idea that thermal-nuclear fusion happened to the Sun, the Planets and their satellites and resulted in the initial maximum mass values and the initial minimum distances.

Conclusion

There are basically two kinds of processes that occur in the universe: Accretion / Condensation produced by gravity in the formation of a star, and Disintegration produced by thermal-nuclear fusion in the formation of planets. Two disks of different functions, the first disk and the second disk, are created accordingly.

The first disk disappeared and the second disk is created when a star is born. The size of a star is determined by the size ( total mass ) of the first disk.

In the first disk, objects move inward to the centre, the mass of the central object, the youngest, increases from its initial value.

In the second disk, planets and satellites inherit thermal-nuclear fusion from the star, move outward, away from the star or a planet, while the mass of the star or a planet decreases from its initial value. Planets are older than their satellites. The star is the oldest.

Taking into account the fact that in the solar system, Sun, planets and their satellites meet the second disk standard, my conclusions are proved to be correct.

Reference

1. Why is the Earth moving away from the sun? http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn17228-why-is-the-earth-moving-away-from-the-sun.html#.VP_eGckg6t9

2. Formation and evolution of the Solar System
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Formation_and_evolution_of_the_Solar_System

Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/?expert=Jihai_Zhang

Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/8958086

According to my calculations, the Earth's theoretical core temperature is about 1000 ℃ or less (in fact, currently about 5600 ℃) and the moon's theoretical core temperature is about 10 ℃ or less (in fact, currently about 1300℃).

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