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"Supermassive Black Hole Exists Where It Shouldn't Be" --Inside a Blob Galaxy

 

 

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Henize 2-10 is a small irregular galaxy that is not too far away in astronomical terms -- 30 million light-years. "This is a dwarf starburst galaxy -- a small galaxy with regions of very rapid star formation -- about 10 percent of the size of our own Milky Way," says co-author Ryan Hickox, an assistant professor in Dartmouth's Department of Physics and Astronomy. "If you look at it, it's a blob, but it surprisingly harbors a central black hole."

Hickox says there may be similar small galaxies in the known universe, but this is one of the only ones close enough to allow detailed study. Lead author Thomas Whalen, Hickox and a team of other researchers have now analyzed a series of four X-ray observations of Henize 2-10 using three space telescopes over 13 years, providing conclusive evidence for the existence of a black hole. The galaxy Henize 2-10 is shown above as seen with the Hubble telescope. The color scale has been adjusted to show the details in the center of the galaxy. (Credit: N. Bergvall & T. Marquart)

Their findings appear as an online preprint to be published in The Astrophysical Journal Letters. A PDF also is available on request.

Suspicions about Henize 2-10 first arose in 2011 when another team, that included some of the co-authors, first looked at galaxy Henize 2-10 and tried to explain its behavior. The observed dual emissions of X-ray and radio waves, often associated with a black hole, gave credence to the presence of one. The instruments utilized were Japan's Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (1997), the European Space Agency's XMM-Newton (2004, 2011) and NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory (2001).

 

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"The galaxy was bright in 2001, but it has gotten less bright over time," says Hickox. "This is not consistent with being powered only by star formation processes, so it almost certainly had to have a small supermassive black hole -- small compared to the largest supermassive black holes in massive elliptical galaxies, but is still a million times the mass of the sun."

A characteristic of supermassive black holes is that they do change with time -- not a huge amount, explains Hickox, "and that is exactly what Tom Whalen found," he says. "This variability definitely tells us that the emission is coming from a compact source at the center of this system, consistent with it being a supermassive black hole."

While supermassive black holes are typically found in the central bulges of galaxies, Henize 2-10 has no bulge. "All the associations that people have made between galaxies and black holes tell us there ought to be no black hole in this system," says Whalen, but the team has proven otherwise. Whalen, a recent Dartmouth graduate, is now a member of the Chandra X-ray Center team at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics.

A big question is where black holes come from. "When people try to simulate where the galaxies come from, you have to put in these black holes at the beginning, but we don't really know what the conditions were. These dwarf starburst galaxies are the closest analogs we have in the universe around us now, to the first galaxies early in the universe," says Whalen.

The authors conclude: "Our results confirm that nearby star-forming galaxies can indeed form massive black holes and that by implication so can their primordial counterparts."

"Studying those to get some sense of what might have happened very early in the universe is very powerful," says Hickox.

The Daily Galaxy via Dartmouth University

Comments

There is no such thing as a black hole,I see from the article below this on the menu,that there is a shift or at least a paradigm going on.pardon the pun but are we seeing a climate change,perhaps an electrical one.

I'll give you this mikeyo...you are consistent....
Perhaps we are seeing the beginning of a new spiral...as the black hole forms so will the rest of the galaxy. The black hole will begin to pull more and more matter around it and as it spins it will flatten out.

Lets take another look about a billion years from now...
Set your clocks.....

lol John

i like to think of them as gravitational wells. when the monster stars reach the gravitational breaking point and collapse releasing enormous amounts of energy and releasing the atomic particles to form a pocket of gravity so strong no energy can escape. crushing all of the particles together eliminating all space and beginning to devour everything the comes within it gravitational pull, while crushing the space out of it. now the particles of the atoms can grind together, crushing them under enormous heat and pressure, releasing their energy. i think this is where dark mater and dark energy come from. the gravitational well holds everything but that dark energy which exudes from the well because its particles are so small and numerous that the gravity of the well has no positive effect on them. after billions of years of spewing dark mater/energy the universe is getting full of it. it may be that at a certain saturation point the dark matter condenses back into atomic material again. a cycle that has been going on since before our part of the universe came into being and goes on still.

Imagine this,you have a cup but instead of the saucer being underneath its actually on top.now this saucer turns out to have a massive electromagnetic field which will not allow any particles to escape but will keep on drawing positive and negative particles into it,this is called a choke ring.when the cup can no longer absorb anymore matter something has to give.that's when the bottom of the cup fractures and the centre of the saucer fractures through enormous pressures (not gravity),and that's when you see massive jets shooting out from what appears to be a black hole,but its everything other than that.as for massive stars collapsing into black holes,this is an impossibility.all the heavier elements created by these stars are produced on the or near the surface of these stars not in the core,just like our own sun.

probable it was a collision between a black hole of kinetic type with the dwarf galaxy, this thing was going to create two effects, the irregular form of the galaxy and bursting stars, after it arrived in the center of the galaxy the the kinetic moment had consumed itself and transformed it in a kind of stationary one due to the new income of materia that is surrounding it and it's feeding it

or perhaps the temperature of the core was from the beginning unexpected too big ,the content had consumed itself very quickly , the speed of collapsing in the end was bigger than expected creating in sorrounding of the core a instant tridimensional clepsydra of absorsion bigger than usual in a allready big density stars vecinity

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