"Supermassive Black Holes at the Center of Every Galaxy May be Wormholes Created in the Early Universe"
The supermassive black hole candidates at the center of every normal galaxy might be wormholes created in the early Universe, connecting either two different regions of our Universe or two different universes in a Multiverse model, say Zilong Li and Cosimo Bambi with Fudan University in Shanghai in a fascinating new theory.
In a few years, the VLTI instrument GRAVITY will have the capability to image blobs of plasma orbiting near the innermost stable circular orbit of SgrA∗, the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way (shown below) and other black holes as well.
Plasma gases orbiting a black hole versus a wormhole should look different using GRAVITY data because wormholes should bea lot smaller. The team also suggests taht the presence of wormholes could help explain how new galaxies have what are now large black holes would presumably take billions of years to become so massive, so how. they ask, can they exist in a new galaxy? They can't say Li and Bambi: instead those objects are wormholes, which theory suggests could spring up in an instant following the Big Bang.
The secondary image of a hot spot orbiting around a wormhole is substantially different from the one of a hot spot around a black hole, because the photon capture sphere of the wormhole is much smaller, and its detection by GRAVITY could test if the center of our Galaxy harbors a wormhole rather then a black hole.
In an earlier 2011 paper in sync with atomic physicist Neils Bohr's famous comment about a colleagues crazy theory that "it's crazy, but maybe not crazy enough to be true," an eminent physicist developed a theory that gamma ray bursts that occur at the fringes of the known universe and appear to be associated with supernovae, or star explosions, in faraway galaxies, are actually massive beams of high-energy photons from alternate universes that spray the galaxy in arcs, like cosmic death rays as black holes rotate.
The new theory suggests that our universe is located within the interior of a wormhole which itself is part of a black hole that lies within a much larger universe. That sounds crazy enough to us (and equally fascinating).
According to Indiana University physicist Nikodem Poplawski, the matter that black holes absorb don't condense into singularities. Instead, they burst out the other side and become the building blocks for whole other universes in another reality.
In short, our Big Bang popped out of a black hole from another, much larger universe.
Poplawski proposes that the bursts may be discharges of matter from alternate universes. The matter, he says, might be escaping into our universe through supermassive black holes-wormholes-at the hearts of those galaxies, though it's not clear how that would be possible.
Poplawski uses Euclidean-based mathematical modeling to suggest that all black holes may have wormholes inside which exist universes created at the same time as the black holes.
Poplawski takes advantage of the Euclidean-based coordinate system called isotropic coordinates to describe the gravitational field of a black hole and to model the radial geodesic motion of a massive particle into a black hole.
In studying the radial motion through the event horizon (a black hole's boundary) of two different types of black holes -- Schwarzschild and Einstein-Rosen, both of which are mathematically legitimate solutions of general relativity -- Poplawski admits that only experiment or observation can reveal the motion of a particle falling into an actual black hole. But he also notes that since observers can only see the outside of the black hole, the interior cannot be observed unless an observer enters or resides within.
"This condition would be satisfied if our universe were the interior of a black hole existing in a bigger universe," he said. "Because Einstein's general theory of relativity does not choose a time orientation, if a black hole can form from the gravitational collapse of matter through an event horizon in the future then the reverse process is also possible. Such a process would describe an exploding white hole: matter emerging from an event horizon in the past, like the expanding universe."
A white hole is connected to a black hole by an Einstein-Rosen bridge (wormhole) and is hypothetically the time reversal of a black hole. Poplawski's paper suggests that all astrophysical black holes, not just Schwarzschild and Einstein-Rosen black holes, may have Einstein-Rosen bridges, each with a new universe inside that formed simultaneously with the black hole.
"From that it follows that our universe could have itself formed from inside a black hole existing inside another universe," he said.
By continuing to study the gravitational collapse of a sphere of dust in isotropic coordinates, and by applying the current research to other types of black holes, views where the universe is born from the interior of an Einstein-Rosen black hole could avoid problems seen by scientists with the Big Bang theory and the black hole information loss problem which claims all information about matter is lost as it goes over the event horizon (in turn defying the laws of quantum physics).
This model in isotropic coordinates of the universe as a black hole could explain the origin of cosmic inflation, Poplawski theorizes.
Poplawski is a research associate in the IU Department of Physics. He holds an M.S. and a Ph.D. in physics from Indiana University and a M.S. in astronomy from the University of Warsaw, Poland.
"It's kind of a crazy idea, but who knows?" he said. We think it just might be crazy enough!
This scenario in which the universe is born from inside a wormhole (also called an Einstein-Rosen Bridge) was suggested in a paper from Indiana University theoretical physicist Nikodem Poplawski in Physics Letters B.
The Chandra X-Ray image at the top of the page is the first x-ray picture of the Andromeda Galaxy (M31) on October 13, 1999. The blue dot in the center of the image is a "cool" million-degree x-ray source where a supermassive black hole with the mass of 30-million suns is located. The x-rays are produced by matter funneling toward the black hole. Numerous other hotter x-ray sources are also apparent. Most of these are probably due to x-ray binary systems, in which a neutron star or black hole is in close orbit around a normal star.
The Daily Galaxy via Distinguishing black holes and wormholes with orbiting hot spots, arXiv:1405.1883 [gr-qc] arxiv.org/abs/1405.1883 and Indiana University
Milky Way Image Credit: NASA/UMass/D.Wang et al., IR: NASA/STScI