Strangely Shaped Oceans of Red-Dwarf Planets
The Milky Way and Andromeda --"Are Encircled by 12 Bright Galaxies in a Ring 24-million Light Years Across"

"Infinity of Galaxies" --Giordano Bruno's Heresy on 'Cosmos: A Spacetime Odyssey'



Smack in the center of the Rome's fashionable Campo de Fiori is a statue of Giordano Bruno, philosopher. Bruno held that God was present in nature and that the universe and life was infinite. The Catholic Church burned him at the stake, right where his statue is today. Bruno and his deadly heresy was a major focus of Neil deGrasse Tyson during last night's episode of "Cosmos: A Spacetime Odyssey."

"The general opinion is not always the perfect truth..." Giordano Bruno is still quoted. Such remarks produced expensive, bitter consequences: On 17th of February 1600 he publicly was burnt at the stake after eight years of torture and dungeon detention. Today the Piazza Campo dei Fiori where this statue stands has become a monument to free thinking; adjacent to the statue, is the "Fahrenheit 451" bookstore, named after Ray Bradbury's 1953 novel expounding freedom of thought.

As the Spanish physicist Beatriz Gato-Rivera wrote, Bruno "claimed that the sun was only one star among the many thousands, and therrefore, like the sun, many other stars also have planets around them and living beings inhabiting them." Gato-Rivera goes on to note that to "appreciate the genius of Bruno one has to take into account that he lived at a time when more than 99% of the intellectuals believed that the Earth was the center of the Universe, and a few others, like Copernicus and Galileo, believed that it was the Sun, instead, at the center of the Universe, and the stars being some bright heavenly bodies of an unknown nature."




On February 18th, in the year 2000, cardinal Angelo Sodano, the undersecretary of state of the Vatican, expressed the "deep regret" of the catholic church (according to Zenith News Agency with regard to the death sentence against Giordano Bruno) in a letter to the participants of a congress in Naples, which took place for the memory of this Italian philosopher in the local theological faculty 2000. It was a "terrible death", the cardinal wrote 400 years too late, "a sad episode in newer Christian history".

In Bruno's honor, a space-born laboratory the ESA's Darwin Mission- will dramatically expand humanity's ability to scientifically test Bruno's vision that life is pervasive throughout the universe. The search is well underway with the discovery the past couple of years of more than 1000 exoplanets (out of a universe of billions).

The Daily Galaxy via Casey Kazan, editor


In the book «From the inside of quarks and up to beyond the universe», there is the theory of «Pointal charges», describing the creation with a new, different way from the way describe the creation, of to date proposed theories.
According to the theory of «Pointal charges» World consists of a multitude of Universes and Anti-universes where their number is growing exponentially. The number of galaxies that exists in this World is huge, so huge that we can say that, according to today's numbers of comparison, approaches to infinity.
As a simple example I will mention, that the time you read this comment, on the limits of the World created so much matter and antimatter that can cover the matter and the antimatter of many new Universes and Anti-universes.

Giordano Bruno was a brilliant Italian scientist and intellectual -- centuries ahead of his time -- who dared to have the heretical opinions that the sun was a star, like other stars, and those stars like the sun, must have planets surrounding them and may have living beings inhabiting them. For those brilliant insights he was imprisoned and tortured for eight years and then burned alive in the Campo de Fiori in Rome on February 17, 1600 -- all courtesy of the Catholic Church and the Inquisition. Fortunately, the Catholic Church was kind enough to reconsider their actions and issue an apology 400 years later. Better late than never I suppose. He was remembered yesterday in the latest version of Cosmos -- a thoroughly excellent update on that famous science and astronomy series. While we can all shake our heads at the fear and ignorance that the Church embodied in that act, it is worth considering how the tea party and the anti-intellectual and anti-science religious and political groups would treat a man or woman who dared to have "heretical" views that deviated from their general opinions and beliefs. My guess is that such a person would not be treated well. Perhaps we should take a moment and learn from our mistakes.

Interestingly enough, both Copernicus and Galileo survived into old age, with Copernicus even being invited to Rome to deliver a lecture on heliocentrism.

No, Bruno wasn't burned at the stake for his astronomical views, he died because he (1) denied the Trinity, (2) denied the divinity of Christ, (3) denied the Virginity of Mary, (3) questioned the Incarnation and (4) questioned Transubstantiation. Any one of those views, proclaimed loudly enough, would get you hot feet.

Heck, even Wikipedia gets it right.

wait until Ancient Aliens gets a hold of this guy - this will be must watch TV!!

Unfortunately, though, the Catholic Church is, and has been, so jealous of its power and pervasive authority that they cannot even today countenance, or allow the possibility for "Bruno philosophy". I also think the "Trinity" is stupid if one is also trying to advocate for ONE GOD. "Three" and "one" are not the same thing no matter how you try to rationalize it: a "Father" and "Son" and still another "Spirit", are not one. Moreover, Jesus (if there WAS a Jesus living when the Church says there was) was an illiterate carpenter's son with a gift for leadership. Those he led were also illiterate. He DIDN'T do, or accomplish, things that break laws of nature (irrespective of the Church's teaching and the Bible's stories). A MYTH is a MYTH no matter how or where it originates. The Church could not and cannot afford to allow that as even a possibility and (it figuratively burns people at the stake today for anything close to that kind of proclamation, by teaching that they are doomed to spend eternity in "HELL"). The legends in the Bible generally come from FLAT-EARTH believers who thought the sun and stars revolved around the earth. They thought that "heaven" is "up" and "hell" is "down". So that a "virgin gave birth" is, and was, an attempt to satisfy prophecy. If Mary gave birth to Jesus, an earthly father impregnated her. Also, I'm saying here and now the concept of the "Incarnation" and "Transubstantiation" (with the concept of how within the Eucharist, the bread turns into Christ's flesh and the wine into his blood is the stuff of FABLE. Also, although no one in the Church would ever want to think of it this way, it is certainly a "close relative" of the idea of cannibalism.) Yes, Bruno was a heretic in his thinking, however heretical thinking is still anathema to what the Church can allow. But it is still a more realistic way to deal with the world as it is, instead of as some "vested" (literally) interest Church fathers need it to be.

Far from bring a scientist, Bruno divined the "infinity of galaxies" from a mystical dream experience as shown on Cosmos. Both Galileo and Johannes Kepler both regarded him poorly. Everytime he would earn patrons, he would somehow burn bridges with them within a few years. The reason was simple. He had no proof that his ideas were correct. He simply dreamed them. The Catholic Church burned him at the stake for denying the Trinity, Christ's divinity, and Mary's virginity. While the Church regrets using violence against his person and asks for forgiveness for that action, make no mistake; he was executed for being a heretic, not for being a scientist.

Oh, sure, NOW you'll adopt Galileo and Kepler (leaving Bruno to the side). Bruno wasn't a scientist, but he was centuries ahead in his thinking and consideration of the universe.
AND (WHILE WE'RE AT IT) both Galileo and Kepler were counted enemies of the Catholic church. Yes they regarded Bruno poorly, but other astronomers of the time PLUS the Catholic Church regarded all three of them poorly. Back then, burning at the stake was considered just punishment for "heresy".
Let's consider Galileo:
Galileo's championing of heliocentrism was controversial within his lifetime, when most subscribed to either geocentrism or the Tychonic system. He met with opposition from astronomers, who doubted heliocentrism due to the absence of an observed stellar parallax. The matter was investigated by the ROMAN INQUISITION in 1615, which concluded that heliocentrism was false AND CONTRARY TO SCRIPTURE, placing works advocating the Copernican system on the index of banned books and forbidding Galileo from advocating heliocentrism. Galileo later defended his views in Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems, which appeared to attack Pope Urban VIII and thus alienated him and the Jesuits, who had both supported Galileo up until this point. HE WAS TRIED BY THE HOLY OFFICE, then found "vehemently suspect of heresy", was forced to recant, and spent the rest of his life under house arrest [Perhaps, out of the kindness of their hearts, they decided against the STAKE BURNING for him]. It was while Galileo was under house arrest that he wrote one of his finest works, Two New Sciences, in which he summarized the work he had done some forty years earlier, on the two sciences now called kinematics and strength of materials.
and as to KEPLER:
On August 2, 1600, AFTER REFUSING TO CONVERT TO CATHOLICISM, Kepler and his family were banished from Graz. [No doubt the Church would have preferred burning him at the stake]. Several months later, Kepler returned, now with the rest of his household, to Prague. Through most of 1601, he was supported directly by Tycho [Brahe], who assigned him to analyzing planetary observations and writing a tract against Tycho's (by then deceased) rival, Ursus.

@Just As Bruno, you shouldn't cut-and-paste from Wiki like you do:

Oh, and your Caps Lock key is sticking, you might want to check that.

TomB, Cut and paste is fine depending on the source. AND caps can be used for emphasis. But, I'll put my degrees and writing against your scholarship any time. You evidently have no better arguments. I must have hit a nerve. :)

Then suddenly we get a claim that Giordano Bruno is responsible for the concept of the universe - because he read 'banned' books. Lucretious wasn't science - there was no scientific evidence for his claim that wind caused earthquakes or worms spontaneously generated - it was philosophy, and his book was not rare in 1600 AD, people were also not martyred for reading it, and yet we get told a philosophical belief in infinity was what got Bruno into trouble.

It's an immediate disconnect for people who know science history because it smacks of an agenda. I instead object because it is flat-out incorrect. To claim that Bruno promoted the concept of the universe, a "soaring vision", despite persecution, while simultaneously being hired over and over by the institutions we are told were oppressing him, makes no sense. That segment of the show makes it sound like he was a devout Christian tormented by reason rather than what he was - a cultist who engaged in confirmation bias to pick and choose anything that matched his beliefs.

Bruno's "science" was never mentioned during his trial, he was on trial for being a cult worshiper. He only took up the cause of Copernicus because he believed in the Egyptian god Thoth and Hermetism and their belief that the Earth revolved around the Sun, not because he had perceived anything radical. Galileo rightly dismissed most of Bruno's teachings as philosophical mumbo-jumbo. Bruno was only revived as a 'scientist' and a martyr for science by anti-religious humanists in the 19th century.The church didn't even bother to ban his writing until well after he was dead.

Bruno was not a martyr for science, the way the cartoon in Cosmos: A Spacetime Odyssey alleges, he was a martyr for magic. He actually was a heretic. Sorry, but 400 years ago when you repeatedly lecture about what was regarded as a cult and insist Catholics and Protestants need to accept Hermetism as fact, you are getting into trouble. He also taught that demons caused diseases. No matter how little you may know about the 16th century, you know they were not teaching that demons cause diseases.

Rael has the best explanation of our origin I've heard. I left Christianity as soon as I became aware of the information. The things humanity is doing to destroy itself and has done to destroy past knowledge is beyond shameful...

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