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Icy Crust of Jupiter's Europa --Does It Reveal the Existence of a Huge Ocean Below?




The European Space Agency (ESA) also plans to launch the JUpiter ICy moons Explorer mission (JUICE) in 2022. When the spacecraft arrives at its destination, the icy moons of Jupiter, in 2030, it will fly over Europa two times to measure the thickness of its mysterious crust and explore its habitability. Scientists suspect that inside Europa, one of the icy moons of Jupiter, reservoirs of liquid water exists, the essential element for life on Earth. This theory emerged from information obtained on the Voyager and Galileo missions, which also registered fractures and `chaotic´ terrains associated to reddish materials, which contrast with the glacial white of the dominant water ice of the surface.

Water, salts and gases dissolved in the huge ocean that scientists believe could exist below Europa´s icy crust can rise to the surface generating the enigmatic geological formations associated to red-tinged materials that can be seen on this Jupiter's satellite. This is confirmed by the experiment carried out in the laboratory with water, carbon dioxide and magnesium sulfate by researchers at Centro de Astrobiología (CAB, Spain).

Some of these geological structures seem to be related to the rise of fluids coming from inside, as the space missions observations suggest. Data also suggest that red materials are hydrated salts, mainly of magnesium sulfate (MgSO4). Volatile compounds like carbon dioxide (CO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) have been also detected.

Now, with all these premises, researchers at Centro de Astrobiología (CAB, INTA-CSIC) have developed an experiment to explain how these fluids evolve in their way between the deep reservoirs and the moon's surface.

"Just like Earth's magma emerges to the surface, a similar phenomenon could occur in Europa. Although, in this case it would be a watery cryomagma that would evolve and emerge outwards from the interior of the icy moon," says Victoria Muñoz Iglesias, one of this work's authors, published in the journal Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta.

To confirm their hypothesis, the scientists have simulated in the laboratory the extreme conditions of the fluid reservoirs in the crust; particularly the high pressure (reproducing up to 300 bars) and the low temperature (around -4 ºC). They have observed what happens to an aqueous solution with CO2 and MgSO4 from these conditions when it emerges and cools to the surface.

The result is a variety of processes similar to Earth's volcanism, but at temperatures below zero. Three types of minerals are formed depending of the fluid's evolution: water ice, clathrates of carbon dioxide and very hydrated magnesium sulfates (epsomite, meridianiite).

"These crystallization processes are exothermic (they release energy); they also produce volume changes inside the crust, when the cryomagma solidifies," says Victoria Muñoz-Iglesias. "If in the final mineral assemblage the quantity of clathrates is less than that of hydrated salts, the volume increases causing positive topographical features and fracturation in the crust. However, if the proportion of clathrates is bigger than the rest of solids, or these phases are destroyed releasing the gas, volume decreases and the terrains above might collapse. Some of the chaotic terrains of Europa´s surface could have been produced in this way".

The researcher indicates that at present the reddish colour of these formations is explained as produced by the alteration of the salts due to the strong irradiation of Jupiter's charged particles, forming sulfurous compounds. Other theories point to the bombardment of sulphurous elements coming from volcanic emissions from the neighbouring satellite Io.

"Either way, our experiments show that certain characteristics of Europa´s surface regarding its composition, morphology and topography might be explained if a saline aqueous medium is involved, which has important consequences for living beings on Earth," concludes the researcher.

Europa is one of the best candidates for life in the solar system. Actually, president Barack Obama presented NASA's budget for 2015 including an item for 15 million dollars to look for signs of life on this moon in the next decade.

The composite image at the top of the page of the Minos Linea region on Jupiter's moon Europa taken by NASA's Galileo spacecraft shows mottled terrain that appears in brown and reddish hues, indicating the presence of contaminants in the ice. The icy plains, shown here in bluish hues, subdivide into units with different albedos at infrared wavelengths probably because of differences in the grain size of the ice.

Launched in October 1989, Galileo entered orbit around Jupiter on December 7, 1995. The spacecraft's mission is to conduct detailed studies of the giant planet, its largest moons and the Jovian magnetic environment.

The Daily Galaxy via FECYT - Spanish Foundation for Science and Technology




The use of the word "also" in the first sentence implies that that sentence is continuing an idea/theme/etc. from a previous sentence or paragraph...yet, there is none. That's a pretty glaring editorial error.

"ATTEMPT NO LANDING THERE" get it through your head humans!

This is amazing – a collection of best pictures ever of Earth more 20 best pictures ever of Earth
Pictures: http://earthspacecircle.blogspot.com/p/best-pictures.html

"Europa is one of the best candidates for life in the solar system.”

In light of planets and moons of our Star, that's a dramatic statement, when one considers conditions under Europa: its crushed “ocean”, coldly entombed in grave-like darkness. (Though apparently warmed from below, through tidal interactions.)

Organic movement, in super-pressured inky blackness, huge crustal-mass overlaid? Above the compressed depths, an airless fissured surface, void of biosphere, deadly radiation bathed – life impossible.

– To that starkest contrast: Below Earth's vault of air, deep in the oceans, thrive submerged colonies of life in deathly cold of benthic night! Watery expanses alive with communities seemingly self-sustained, on floor of the abyss, perhaps mid scalding heat. “Life finds a way!” So we're told. But, the World's life-infused reservoirs, are IMMERSED in Planet's Biosphere. Intricately woven Web of Life, networked from deep trenches of Hydrosphere, to tall mountains of Atmosphere. The complex unified tapestry of a singular majestic theme: LIFE, the pattern fabric of Design.

– Spattering of constituent elements, ingredients necessary for organic growth(?), on, or IN world-sphere, biology does not necessarily animate.

Not only does Europa's interior liquid mantle constitute an extreme environment (putting it mildly), but, obviously, it's absent a biosphere support system. Beyond that, the cracked moon orbits stormy Jupiter, world of hostile realm.

If EUROPA represents one of the best candidates for Solar System life, then hope grows dim as Pluto-viewed sunlight! Exoplanets circling stars beyond, may offer MORE hope (in one concept view), than worlds sunlight near.

Only one Orb of the Sun family, pulses with heart beat of LIVING Biosphere; its fluid-dynamic global support-system – breathed with life circulation, Pole to Pole. Seasonal rhythms of time, cycles of annual turn, neath stars of old.

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