"The Universe May be Different on Scales Larger than Those We Can Directly Observe" --Planck Satellite Team
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February 07, 2014

"The Universe May be Different on Scales Larger than Those We Can Directly Observe" --Planck Satellite Team

 

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A new map of the cosmic microwave background, the relic radiation from the Big Bang, completed in spring of 2013 by Europe's Planck satellite team refines our understanding of the Universe's composition and evolution, and unveils new features that could challenge the foundations of our current understanding of its evolution. Anomalies suggest that Universe may be different on scales larger than those we can directly observe. Most accurate values yet for the ingredients of the Universe, with normal matter contributing just 4.9% of the mass/energy density of the Universe and dark matter making up 26.8% - nearly a fifth more than the previous estimate.

Our Lopsided universe is darker, lighter, slower, and older than we thought. The new skymap shows that one half of the microwave background is brighter than the other, and the universe has a large cold spot. Anomalies suggest that Universe may be different on scales larger than those we can directly observe.

 

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The Plank data reveled two stunning new mysteries. The first is that we live in a lopsided universe. Einstein created the first physical model of the universe in 1917, know as the “cosmological principle,” which says that in the macro the universe looks the same in all locations, and in all directions because the physical laws governing its formation and expansion operate the same way everywhere. But what the Planck Spacecraft saw was very different: The cosmic microwave background is stronger in one half of the sky than in the other. There is also a large “cold” spot where the effective temperature of the microwaves is below average.

The image is based on the initial 15.5 months of data from Planck and is the mission's first all-sky picture of the oldest light in our Universe, imprinted on the sky when it was just 380,000 years old. This cosmic microwave background (CMB) shows tiny temperature fluctuations that correspond to regions of slightly different densities at very early times, representing the seeds of all future structure: the stars and galaxies of today.

The spacecraft has compiled a trillion observations of a billion points on the sky, looking at each pixel in this image an average of 1,000 times. The Planck team had to rely on a series of computer simulations done on a Cray XE6 supercomputer known as the Hopper, located at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Those simulations made it possible to mimic and subtract the unwanted signals from foreground objects and from within the detectors. According to NASA, the current cosmic snapshot required 10 million processor-hours of time on the Hopper.

Overall, the information extracted from Planck's new map provides an excellent confirmation of the standard model of cosmology at an unprecedented accuracy, setting a new benchmark for our knowledge of the contents of the Universe.

 

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"The CMB temperature fluctuations detected by Planck confirm once more that the relatively simple picture provided by the standard model is an amazingly good description of the Universe," explains George Efstathiou of the University of Cambridge, UK.

The properties of the hot and cold regions of the map provide information about the composition and evolution of the Universe. Normal matter that makes up stars and galaxies contributes just 4.9% of the mass/energy density of the Universe. Dark matter, which has thus far only been detected indirectly by its gravitational influence, makes up 26.8%, nearly a fifth more than the previous estimate. Conversely, dark energy, a mysterious force thought to be responsible for accelerating the expansion of the Universe, accounts for slightly less than previously thought, at around 69%.

The Planck data also set a new value for the rate at which the Universe is expanding today, known as the Hubble constant. At 67.3 km/s/Mpc, this is significantly different from the value measured from relatively nearby galaxies. This somewhat slower expansion implies that the Universe is also a little older than previously thought, at 13.8 billion years.

The analysis also gives strong support for theories of "inflation", a very brief but crucial early phase during the first tiny fraction of a second of the Universe's existence. As well as explaining many properties of the Universe as a whole, this initial expansion caused the ripples in the CMB that we see today.

Although this primordial epoch can't be observed directly, the theory predicts a set of very subtle imprints on the CMB map. Previous experiments have not been able to confidently detect these subtle imprints, but the high resolution of Planck's map confirms that the tiny variations in the density of the early Universe match those predicted by inflation.

"The sizes of these tiny ripples hold the key to what happened in that first trillionth of a trillionth of a second. Planck has given us striking new evidence that indicates they were created during this incredibly fast expansion, just after the Big Bang", explained Joanna Dunkley of the University of Oxford.

But because the precision of Planck's map is so high, it also reveals some peculiar unexplained features that may well require new physics to be understood. Amongst the most surprising findings are that the fluctuations in the CMB over large scales do not match those predicted by the standard model. This anomaly adds to those observed by previous experiments, and confirmed by Planck, including an asymmetry in the average temperatures on opposite hemispheres of the sky, and a cold spot that extends over a patch of sky that is much larger than expected.

One way to explain the anomalies is to propose that the Universe is in fact not the same in all directions on a larger scale than we can observe. In this scenario, the light rays from the CMB may have taken a more complicated route through the Universe than previously understood, resulting in some of the unusual patterns observed today.

"Our ultimate goal would be to construct a new model that predicts the anomalies and links them together. But these are early days; so far, we don't know whether this is possible and what type of new physics might be needed. And that's exciting," says Professor Efstathiou.

The Hubble Deep Field image at the top of the page includes galaxies of various ages, sizes, shapes, and colors. The smallest, reddest galaxies, of which there are approximately 10,000, are some of the most distant galaxies to have been imaged by an optical telescope, probably existing shortly after the Big Bang.

The Daily Galaxy via ESA

Comments

The Cosmos, -definition, which characterize the total of all the universes, all the anti-universes, all untreated early regions and all vast empty spaces that extending to infinity-, is millions of times bigger than the Universe described by the theory of “big bank “.
The theory of “big bank” accepts that the universe began to grow up with huge but still finite and predetermined quantities of energy, matter and anti-matter and developed with a very fast rate that formed the galaxies, solar systems, etc., just as we observe it today. The theory also accepts that today there is not produced new material and that the balance of “material and energy” remains constant.
The theory of «pointal charges» is a new theory described in the book «From the inside of quarks and up to beyond the Universe» and based on different reasoning. It starts with that the beginning the creation had a very moderate rate, with the production of limited small amounts of matter and anti-matter. This production accelerated at rates, today have reached the levels that we observe. According to the theory of «pointal charges» we can say that now at the origins of the Cosmos, produced huge quantities of matter and anti-matter. As an example, we can say that, at the time you are reading this comment, generated such quantities of matter and anti-matter that is enough of creating many universes and anti-universes.
Because I have the feeling that the theory of «pointal charges» describes the creation as well as the theory of the "big bank" I do the suggestion science to study it as an alternative theory
http://www.amazon.com/Vaggelis-Talios/e/B0054HLJZE

Is the cold spot the very spot that the big bang came from?
If it has been expanding longer it would be colder...YES?

That's it...you heard it here first. I have discovered the
the very place the big bang happened...I win!!!

And what defines the hemispheres? Answer- the equinoxes. The quadupole/octupole of the CMB are aligned to our equinoxes. The dipole is aligned to our equator. The universe at the largest scales are aligned to us. The Copernican Principle is invalidated.

“[N]ew value for the rate at which the Universe is expanding today, known as the Hubble constant. At 67.3 km/s/Mpc,...” Creation of Space in time? From momentous beginning ( “incredibly fast expansion” ), enlargement unending? Galaxy Filaments suspended ( like marine community floating in an ocean of increasing dimension, “medium” spreading in volume ), beyond horizon edge receding – horizons without end?

Who can truly fathom the breath and scope of it?! The “gravity” effects of “Missing Mass”. Creation-force(?) of “Dark Energy”. Dynamic growth of new space. Asymmetrical afterglow of stupendous “real time” Event – instantaneous: Spacetime formation ( “imprints” lingering ). But its “Science”! And frontiers of Science increasingly seem to border realms of the unseen, the hidden – or the unfathomable. Map mysterious, puzzling exotic terrains, deeper facets of their extreme dimensional planes, barely glimpsed on atomic scales, and in cosmic domains.

Coming into unresolved view, evidence of a Superior Reality, enticingly reflecting back at us ( as through faceted planes of Diamond crystal, sunlight coruscating ), through the powerful instrumentality of man's creation? Probing “ghostly” interfaces(?), bordering elusive Science edges? Where landscape boundaries appear to drop-off the Timespace map. Fade into the infinitesimal? Vanish into curlicue sub-dimensions? Or, concealed patterns of invisible fold, trace Cosmic tapestry, origins unknown?

A Creaion Fabric woven with aspects bordering the invisible, surreal – or “unreal”?

Maybe, more than “new physics”, a new perspective is required.

Could the time-energy/matter-matrix be a manifestation of Higher Plane Existence? Mighty galactic structure, generated from LIFE-Power, eternal. Vast law-governed complexity, intricate-lined mathematical filigree, precision wrought Universe – created from nothing: by Hand of Being, infinitely greater EXISTENCE than frames of temporal matter, Earthly scales of Planetary life ( where the real “ghostly” entities reside: atomically, mostly empty space; creatures of animated "dust" ). An Entity, in alternate existence residing, on level of Reality immeasurably above the World of Man, beyond all material limits of ordered Space, transcendent closed cycles of Time.

Does the Universe reveal imprints – Fingerprint limitless Power – radiate Supreme Intelligence – mirror Life-splendor – through Science prisms of Creation?

“For the invisible things of him since the creation of the world are clearly seen, being perceived through the things that are made, even his everlasting power and divinity; ...” Rom. 1:20 – English Revised Version

If the moderators of this site keep cancelling my posts which are done with care and accuracy, what is the point to have the privilege of posting good material? :) Am I getting a bit close to the real truth for comfort? It brings to mind who exactly is "in charge" of this?

But until they delete THIS POST, I can add, if time/space was stretching/expanding then we would not see it because everything we "see" is relative to the observer. So if time/space were really expanding we would be expanding also, cancelling the effect completely. Where do folks get these impossible ideas? Time/space can be "said" to be expanding but only at a front or horizon. It must be manufactured somehow. No I don't have fake answers nor an ego to go with them but I do have a nice background in physics AND common sence.

Objects at the perceived horizon of the universe are going outward at almost the speed of light...then there is nothing that we can see past this horizon. It's like a black hole in a way but we are on the inside in reverse. Would that be a decent clue as to what black holes are and what the edge of the universe is? Of course...and there is a simple connection we can't understand yet. So we can assume that the edge of the universe which I call "the horizon" is the dividing line between objects going slightly under velocity C and slightly over, turning theoretically (Einstein) into pure energy beyond that point. So "beyond" means pure energy and "back" means matter. So if this is true the universe is immersed in pure energy from whence it came in the first place...energy condensing (for want of a better word in English) into matter in the first moments of the time line of the universe's expansion.

probably the temperature of the CMB is polarized by the direction of movement of the observer recession (Plank probe undergoes a Doppler effect on 2 different hemispheres ...
  but the lack of uniformity of temperature and spots suggest that the CMB can be interpreted as residual radiation left by galaxies that are beyond our sight in the "bubble sphere", as I explain in this article:
www.bio-astronomia.blogspot.it


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