"The Great Attractor" --Cosmic Flows of the Local Universe (VIDEO)
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December 16, 2013

"The Great Attractor" --Cosmic Flows of the Local Universe (VIDEO)

 

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This past June, an international team of researchers mapped the motions of structures of the local universe in greater detail than ever before. The maps are presented as a video, which provides a dynamic three-dimensional representation of the universe through the use of rotation, panning and zooming. The Cosmic Flows project has mapped visible and dark matter densities around the Milky Way galaxy up to a distance of 300 million light-years --from the Great Attractor and the Zone of Avoidance to massive galaxy clusters containing millions of elliptical and spiral galaxies.

The large-scale structure of the universe is a complex web of clusters, filaments, and voids. Large voids—relatively empty spaces—are bounded by filaments that form superclusters of galaxies, the largest structures in the universe. Our Milky Way galaxy lies in a supercluster of 100,000 galaxies.

Just as the movement of tectonic plates reveals the properties of Earth’s interior, the movements of the galaxies reveal information about the main constituents of the Universe: dark energy and dark matter. Dark matter is unseen matter whose presence can be deduced only by its effect on the motions of galaxies and stars because it does not give off or reflect light. Dark energy is the mysterious force that is causing the expansion of the universe to accelerate.

 

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The video captures with precision not only the distribution of visible matter concentrated in galaxies, but also the invisible components, the voids and the dark matter. Dark matter constitutes 80 percent of the total matter of our universe and is the main cause of the motions of galaxies with respect to each other. This precision 3-D cartography of all matter (luminous and dark) is a substantial advance.

The correspondence between wells of dark matter and the positions of galaxies (luminous matter) is clearly established, providing a confirmation of the standard cosmological model. Through zooms and displacements of the viewing position, this video follows structures in three dimensions and helps the viewer grasp relations between features on different scales, while retaining a sense of orientation.

The scientific community now has a better representation of the moving distribution of galaxies around us and a valuable tool for future research.

The scientific article, “Cosmography of the Local Universe,” which explains the research behind the video, is available at http://arxiv.org/abs/1306.0091.

The reality of superclusters was not apparent until the 1980s, when new telescopes and sensors could produce three-dimensional maps of the Universe. Superclusters are typically seen as long and thin strands of clusters and galaxies, intracluster gases and, presumably, "dark matter" on a two dimensional surface, interspersed by large voids nearly empty of matter.

Astronomers discovered that the galaxies in the Universe are arranged in sheets and walls surrounding large nearly-empty voids. Spiral galaxies line up like beads on a string, with their spin axes aligned with the filaments that outline voids While scanning the sky for the oldest cosmic light, ESA’s Planck satellite captured snapshots of some of the largest galaxy clusters and superclusters in the Universe.

Several hundred galaxies and the huge amounts of gas that permeate them are shown in the image at the top of the page of the core of the Shapley Supercluster, the largest cosmic structure in the local Universe, discovered in the 1930s by American astronomer Harlow Shapley, as a remarkable concentration of galaxies in the Centaurus constellation.

 

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Boasting more than 8000 galaxies and with a total mass more than ten million billion times the mass of the Sun, it is the most massive structure within a distance of about a billion light-years from our Milky Way Galaxy.The hot gas pervading galaxy clusters shines brightly in X-rays, but it is also visible at microwave wavelengths, which Planck sees as a distinctive signature in the cosmic microwave background – the afterglow of the Big Bang.

Looking for this signature – called the Sunyaev–Zel’dovich effect – Planck has already spotted more than 1000 galaxy clusters, including several superclusters and pairs of interacting clusters.

The Virgo Supercluster or Local Supercluster is the irregular supercluster that contains the Virgo Cluster in addition to the Local Group, which in turn contains the Milky Way and Andromeda galaxies. At least 100 galaxy groups and clusters are located within its diameter of 110 million light-years. It is one of millions of superclusters in the observable Universe.

It was discovered in the 1980's that not only the Local Group, but all matter out to a distance of at least 50 Mpc is experiencing a flow on the order of 600 km/sec in the direction of the Norma cluster (Abell 3627). Lynden-Bell dubbed the cause of this "The Great Attractor". While astronomers are confident of the velocity of the LS, which has been measured against the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), the nature of what is causing it remains one of the great mysteries of astronomy.

Astronomers have known for years that something seems to be pulling our Milky Way and tens of thousands of other galaxies toward itself at a breakneck 22 million kilometers (14 million miles) per hour. But they couldn’t pinpoint exactly what or where it is. A huge volume of space that includes the Milky Way and super-clusters of galaxies is flowing towards a mysterious, gigantic unseen mass named mass astronomers have dubbed "The Great Attractor," some 250 million light years from our Solar System.

The Milky Way and Andromeda galaxies are the dominant structures in a galaxy cluster called the Local Group which is, in turn, an outlying member of the Virgo supercluster. Andromeda -- about 2.2 million light-years from the Milky Way -- is speeding toward our galaxy at 200,000 miles per hour.

This motion can only be accounted for by gravitational attraction, even though the mass that we can observe is not nearly great enough to exert that kind of pull. The only thing that could explain the movement of Andromeda is the gravitational pull of a lot of unseen mass -- perhaps the equivalent of 10 Milky Way-size galaxies -- lying between the two galaxies.

Meanwhile, our entire Local Group is hurtling toward the center of the Virgo cluster at one million miles per hour.

The Milky Way and its neighboring Andromeda galaxy, along with some 30 smaller ones, form what is known as the Local Group, which lies on the outskirts of a super cluster, a grouping of thousands of galaxies known as Virgo (see image below), which is also pulled toward the Great Attractor. Based on the velocities at these scales, the unseen mass inhabiting the voids between the galaxies and clusters of galaxies amounts to perhaps 10 times more than the visible matter.

Even so, adding this invisible material to luminous matter brings the average mass density of the Universe still to within only 10-30 percent of the critical density needed to "close" the Universe. This phenomena suggests that the Universe be "open." Cosmologists continue to debate this question, just as they are also trying to figure out the nature of the missing mass, or "dark matter."

It is believed that this dark matter dictates the structure of the Universe on the grandest of scales. Dark matter gravitationally attracts normal matter, and it is this normal matter that astronomers see forming long thin walls of super-galactic clusters.

Recent measurements with telescopes and space probes of the distribution of mass in M31 -- the largest galaxy in the neighborhood of the Milky Way -- and other galaxies led to the recognition that galaxies are filled with dark matter and have shown that a mysterious force -- a dark energy -- fills the vacuum of empty space, accelerating the Universe's expansion.

Astronomers now recognize that the eventual fate of the Universe is inextricably tied to the presence of dark energy and dark matter. The current standard model for cosmology describes a universe that is 70 percent dark energy, 25 percent dark matter, and only 5 percent normal matter.

We don't know what dark energy is, or why it exists. On the other hand, particle theory tells us that, at the microscopic level, even a perfect vacuum bubbles with quantum particles that are a natural source of dark energy. But a naïve calculation of the dark energy generated from the vacuum yields a value 10120 times larger than the amount we observe. Some unknown physical process is required to eliminate most, but not all, of the vacuum energy, leaving enough left to drive the accelerating expansion of the Universe.

The Universe as we see it contains only the stable relics and leftovers of the Big Bang: unstable particles have decayed away with time, and the perfect symmetries have been broken as the Universe has cooled, but the structure of space remembers all the particles and forces we can no longer see around us.

Discovering what it is that makes up the heart of the Great Attractor -- will surely rank as one of the greatest discoveries in the history of science. Recent findings suggest these motions are the result of gravitational forces from not one, but two things: the Great Attractor, and a conglomerate of galaxies far beyond it.

The location of the Great Attractor was finally determined in 1986 and lies at a distance of 250 million light years from the Milky Way, in the direction of the Hydra and Centaurus constellations. That region of space is dominated by the Norma cluster, a massive cluster of galaxies, and contains a preponderance of large, old galaxies, many of which are colliding with their neighbors, and or radiating large amounts of radio waves.

The Great Attractor is a diffuse concentration of matter some 400 million light-years in size within the so-called "Centaurus Wall" of galaxies , about seven degrees off the plane of the Milky Way. X-ray observations with the ROSAT satellite then revealed that Abell 3627 is at the center of the Great Attractor. It lies in the so-called Zone of Avoidance, where the dust and stars of the Milky Way's disk obscures as much as a quarter of the Earth's visible sky.

Major concentration of galaxies lies beyond the Great Attractor, near the Shapley Supercluster, 500 million light-years away. Mapping X-ray luminous galaxy clusters in the Great Attractor region has shown that the pull our galaxy is experiencing is most likely due to both the nearby Great Attractor and these more distant structures.

In the 1987, a group of astronomers known as the "Seven Samurai," at Cal Tech uncovered this coordinated motion of the Milky Way and our several million nearest galactic neighbors. They found that galaxies are very unevenly distributed in space, with galactic super-clusters separated by incredibly huge voids of visible ordinary matter.

The place towards which we all appear headed was originally called the New Supergalactic Center or the Very Massive Object until one of the discoverers, Alan Dressler, decided they needed a more evocative name and came up with "The Great Attractor."

The motion of local galaxies indicated there was something massive out there that are pulling the Milky Way, the Andromeda Galaxy, and other nearby galaxies towards it. For a while, nobody could see what it was, because it lies behind the plane of our Galaxy -- that means the gas and dust in our Galaxy obscures the light from the Great Attractor, and it is outshone by the stars and other objects in our Galaxy.

The Daily Galaxy via ESO, Planck Institute, universe-review.ca, solstation.com, nasa.gov world-science.netand http://manoa.hawaii.edu/news/

         

           

Comments

This link might shed some light ...

This link might shed some light ...

neah, it's just an advanced alien civilization collecting galaxies.

They realized universe is expanding into nothingness and will be difficult to catch up with the expansion to colonize more galaxies, so instead of chasing after galaxies better make the galaxies come to you, they created a super mega big black hole that generated a major slump depression in the space-time fabric and galaxies start rolling down the fabric, and as the galaxies arrive will put them into stable orbit around the black whole (like planets around the star). The more galaxies arrive at the center the strongest the pull and furthest can grab.

The technology was rather simple for this civilization billions of years more advanced technologically than us, however they did had to destroy few dozen galaxies and collapse their energy. But don't worry, whatever systems with primitive lifeforms existed were nicely placed in a zoo galaxy.

How do I know? They came in my dream last nigh LOL
Have I gone mental? Perhaps, but at least this is what I would do if I was sufficiently smart and advanced, too bad I'm not either :-p

THE ONEMINDED DILEMMA OF MODERN COSMOLOGY
Quote:
"Dark matter is unseen matter whose presence can be deduced only by its effect on the motions of galaxies and stars because it does not give off or reflect light. Dark energy is the mysterious force that is causing the expansion of the universe to accelerate".

AD: "Unseen dark matter and ditto dark energies" rules the the basical ideas of modern cosmological science. Motions in the Universe goes both inwards and outwards, contracting and expanding, but moderne cosmologistst are stuck in the oneminded idea that "gravity rules the Universe" and every time they observe other motions, they just add more and more "dark magics" - and of course they get more and more confused.

- Accordingly to the (very strange) idea of Big Bang, "the Universe is expanding" and accordingly the supposed "Great Attractor", the observable Universe is contracting.

The obvious logics are of course that everything IN the (eternal) Universe is moving in circuits of formation with BOTH an attracting and expanding motion. This can only occur in different kinds of circuital and spherical motions which drives the overall formation.

"Gravity" is logically the only fundamental force which cannot compute with the other forces - just because "gravity" only describe 1 contractive direction where alle the other fundamental forces decribes helical motions; magnetic circuits, rotations; orbits; contraction and expansion.

Modern cosmological science is going into a cosmological dark mode because the scientists don´t see the light in the natural movements of the real fundamental forces.

Regards
Ivar Nielsen
Natural Philosopher

NB: Sorry for not having spellchecked the reply.

"Spiral galaxies line up like beads on a string, with their spin axes aligned with the filaments that outline voids." -- Among other points, never read this before. Intriguing!

-- Just a layman, but I think Astronomers could be making a critical blinding error ( understandable, from a purely material point of view ), concerning these powerful, galaxy-arranging "gravitational" effects, supposedly caused by "matter" ( whatever size, nature and density ). Like so called "Dark Energy" ( form of real "energy", even though it manifests "work"? ), it may be SOMETHING-ELSE altogether.

If not explainable by unseen "matter", or generation of indecipherable "energy"? What then? A shaping Power ( "exerted force" ) manifest?

-- "It is believed that this dark matter dictates the structure of the Universe on the grandest of scales." Structure of the Cosmic Domain, massively extended out from that of the constituent Atomic Realm -- in magnification of scales and expansion of levels, mathematically patterned and precision arranged -- to the ultimate dimension of organized, ordered stellar systems, bond into vast glittering galactic communities ( by intent? ): unfolded Patterns of intelligence within enfolded intelligent patterns, may not be mere coincidence of random chance formation ( in a creation defined by matrix of immutable law ).

Candidate contributor, inanimate "Dark Matter" signature? Or, compelling evidence of deliberate, Purposeful Design ( a most hated phrase, I know ). This fantastic Universe of organization, fashioned by dumb "matter", guided by lifeless "energy", blueprinted from who knows where? Its cosmic-fate, mindlessly destined?

-- "[M]ysterious force" seems a more appropriate term, in alternate worldview frame, "from the beginning". Natures "Dark" in observers' lens -- perhaps, only in our inability to grasp origin? Yet, ultimate outcome of twin mystery agents, or forces ( two sides of a common source, and/or genesis? ): an enormous radiant networked celestial structure. Immense beauty, of the highest luminous order.

The shadow-cast "Standard Model" may be in need of a major remodel.

-- Impressively written, very informative, and fascinating from beginning to end! Illustrated, animated pieces like this, draw me to The Daily Galaxy, more and more, like galaxy filaments to "The Great Attractor".

@J-Rene',
It´s all very simple and logical: Everyting in the Universe is a cyclic formation but the modern ideas of the one-way-gravity-rules confuses the scientists to believe in all kind of dark mumbo jumbo.

The "gravity-scientists confuses matter for cyclical and electric energies and magnetic fields of spherical formation and because they don´t work with the 3 genuine and fundamental forces, they are fooled to think that lots of matter is needed in order to fit their one-way-directed gravity ideas into a Universe where everything is spinning in helical; rotatioal and orbital motions.

@Ivar: I find it humorous that you offer no evidence for your speculations and some of which are patently false such as...

***"Gravity" is logically the only fundamental force which cannot compute (compete?) with the other forces***

Riiight...like holding a magnet over a piece of iron and the iron being pulled to the magnet, magnetism countering the force of gravity? Sounds like competition to me.

Please study some science before commenting on it or calling the scientists wrong without any evidence whatsoever.

@Andrew,
Thanks for your reply.

I wrote:
"Gravity" is logically the only fundamental force which cannot compute with the other forces - just because "gravity" only describe 1 contractive direction where all the other fundamental forces describes helical motions; magnetic circuits, rotations; orbits; contraction and expansion".

AD: (My native language is Danish, so sorry for any lack of more precise formulations).

I didn´t mean "compete" and the term of "compute" is possibly the wrong one. The sentence should be understood as "the consensus understanding of gravity doesn't work fully with the other 3 fundamental forces".

Regarding "my lack of evidence", I refer to the fact in this article where the movements in the observable Universe regarding the Great Attractor contradicts the very idea of the supposed universal expansion coming from a Big Bang.

These opposite ideas and measurements indicates very strongly that the universal formation takes place via both an attracting and an expanding force - leaving the ideas of the "gravity model" to be very insufficient and cause for lots of wrong cosmological assumptions and all kind of inserted "dark cosmological magic's" which could be avoided if working with the genuine other 3 fundamental forces and qualities.

איך נברא היקום יש מאין
Origin And Nature of the Universe
New Science 2013 versus classical science
Classical Science Is Replaced By 2013 Gravity Comprehension !!!
http://universe-life.com/2014/02/24/gravity/
Attn classical science hierarchy, including Darwin and Einstein…
“I hope that now you understand what gravity is and why it is the monotheism of the universe…DH”
=================================
Gravity is the natural selection of self-attraction by the elementary particles of an evolving system on their cyclic course towards the self-replication of the system. Period
( Gravitons are the elementary particles of the universe. RNA nucleotides genes and serotonin are the elementary particles of Earth life)

כח המשיכה
כח המשיכה הוא הבחירה הטבעית להיצמדות הדדית של חלקיקי היסוד של מערכת מתפתחת במהלך התפתחותה המחזורית לעבר שיכפולה. נקודה
( הגרוויטון הוא חלקיק היסוד של היקום. הגנים, הנוקלאוטידים של חומצה ריבונוקלאית והסרוטונין הם החלקיקים היסודיים של חיי כדור הארץ) Dov Henis (comments from 22nd century)
http://universe-life.com/2013/11/14/subverting-organized-religious-science/
http://universe-life.com/2013/09/03/the-shortest-grand-unified-theory/


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