New Discovery Helps Map Earth's 250-Million-Year Journey through the Milky Way
Image of the Day: Odd Dark Nebula in a Dense Star Field

"Quantum Gravity --The Missing Link to Understanding the Evolution of the Universe"

 

           6a00d8341bf7f753ef019aff43b219970d-800wi


Present-day physics cannot describe what happened in the Big Bang. Quantum theory and the theory of relativity fail in this almost infinitely dense and hot primal state of the universe. Only an all-encompassing theory of quantum gravity which unifies these two fundamental pillars of physics could provide an insight into how the universe began. Scientists from the Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute) in Golm/Potsdam and the Perimeter Institute in Canada have made an important discovery along this route. According to their theory, space consists of tiny “building blocks”. Taking this as their starting point, the scientists arrive at one of the most fundamental equations of cosmology, the Friedmann equation, which describes the universe. This shows that quantum mechanics and the theory of relativity really can be unified.

For almost a century, the two major theories of physics have coexisted but have been irreconcilable: while Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity describes gravity and thus the world at large, quantum physics describes the world of atoms and elementary particles. Both theories work extremely well within their own boundaries; however, they break down, as currently formulated, in certain extreme regions, at extremely tiny distances, the so-called Planck scale, for example. Space and time thus have no meaning in black holes or, most notably, during the Big Bang.

“We can describe the behaviour of flowing water with the long-known classical theory of hydrodynamics, says Daniele Oriti from the Albert Einstein Institute. "But if we advance to smaller and smaller scales and eventually come across individual atoms, it no longer applies. Then we need quantum physics.” Just as a liquid consists of atoms, Oriti imagines space to be made up of tiny cells or “atoms of space”, and a new theory is required to describe them: quantum gravity.

In Einstein’s relativity theory, space is a continuum. Oriti now breaks down this space into tiny elementary cells and applies the principles of quantum physics to them, thus to space itself and to the theory of relativity describing it. This is the unification idea.

A fundamental problem of all approaches to quantum gravity consists in bridging the huge dimensional scales from the space atoms to the dimensions of the universe. This is where Oriti, his colleague Lorenzo Sindoni and Steffen Gielen, a former postdoc at the AEI who is now a researcher at the Perimeter Institute in Canada, have succeeded. Their approach is based on so-called group field theory. This is closely related to loop quantum gravity, which the AEI has been developing for some time.

The task now consisted in describing how the space of the universe evolves from the elementary cells. Staying with the idea of fluids: How can the hydrodynamics for the flowing water be derived from a theory for the atoms?

This extremely demanding mathematical task recently led to a surprising success. “Under special assumptions, space is created from these building blocks, and evolves like an expanding universe,” explains Oriti. “For the first time, we were thus able to derive the Friedmann equation directly as part of our complete theory of the structure of space,” he adds. This fundamental equation, which describes the expanding universe, was derived by the Russian mathematician Alexander Friedman in the 1920s on the basis of the General Theory of Relativity. The scientists have therefore succeeded in bridging the gap from the microworld to the macroworld, and thus from quantum mechanics to the General Theory of Relativity: they show that space emerges as the condensate of these elementary cells and evolves into a universe which resembles our own.

Oriti and his colleagues see themselves at the start of a difficult but promising journey. Their current solution is valid only for a homogeneous universe - but our real world is much more complex. It contains inhomogeneities, such as planets, stars and galaxies. The physicists are currently working on including them in their theory.

And they have planned something really big as their ultimate goal. On the one hand, they want to investigate whether it is possible to describe space even during the Big Bang. A few years ago, former AEI researcher Martin Bojowald found clues, as part of a simplified version of loop quantum gravity, that time and space can possibly be traced back through the Big Bang. With their theory, Oriti and his colleagues are hoping to confirm or improve this result.

If it continues to prove successful, the researchers could perhaps use it to explain also the assumed inflationary expansion of the universe shortly after the Big Bang as well, and the nature of the mysterious dark energy. This energy field causes the universe to expand at an ever-increasing rate.

“We will only be able to really understand the evolution of the universe when we have a theory of quantum gravity,” says Oriti’s colleague Lorenzo Sindoni. "The AEI researchers are in good company here: Einstein and his successors, who have been searching for this for almost one hundred years.

Space consists of tiny elementary cells or “atoms of space” in some modern theories of quantum gravity trying to unify General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics. Quantum gravity should make it possible to describe the evolution of the universe from the Big Bang to today within one single theory.

The photograph at the top of the page by Despina Chatzifotiadou captures particle tracks as they fly out from one of the first collisions at 7 TeV (seven trillion electronvolts) at CERN's Large Hadron Collider.

The Daily Galaxy via http://www.mpg.de/

Comments

On spacetime quantization dark energy and dark matter there is an interesting article called Nexus you can read it from www.scirp.org/journal/ijaa.

Are those atoms of space the plank units?

It seems that at the plank level our analog wave functions world is becoming digital world, the speed of light is 1 (plank unit/plank time).

Are we in a simulation after all? I would say no, or perhaps "not with us in mind" because there is a huge unnecessary waste of space, galaxies, stars and planets; will need a computer bigger than a universe with bits of information at plank scale, that will be from 10^26 meter3 to 10^-35 m3, 10^65 bits is an awful waste of resources(or 10^80 / 90 as other estimated) ; Unless the programmers don't know what they are looking for and were just fishing in the dark, a planet and a sun will be enough just to experiment the evolution.

Space is a sponge that absorbed matter that burped into our universe through perforations in a membrane that separates the universes. The homogeneity of matter is explained by the sponge analogy. You avoid the problem in plotting time back to the singularity (big bang) because of gravity - in the sponge theory - there is no big bang singularity. You don't need dark matter to add to the existing matter to explain the stop/clump/roll formation of the galaxies. In a sponge there would be loads of matter hiding in the cells. You don't need dark energy to explain acceleration of space - it's a sponge that expands as it absorbs. And as it reaches the end of the universe - perforations and another sponge will increase its acceleration. You don't need inflation to explain why matter didn't collapse shortly after time 1. The sponge expanded and there was no singularity.

A state of nothingness will remain a state of nothingness, unless acted upon by an outside force or agent.

Well - seems like the guys which have rejected my theory, will finally became the prime theory about unification of everything :)
You are welcome :)

http://www.sciforums.com/showthread.php?135686-The-universe-building-block-a-radical-theory

One thing we can be certain of from general relativity is that there is no such thing as homogeneous space-time and therefore no big bang. General Relativity is Maxwell's Equations with Time taken independent of Space into a fourth dimension; that is to say, there is more Time in one part of Space than another.

Political social agenda A-
Science content F

I suspected all along that the universe was constructed from LEGOs.

Here is an interesting article that eliminates the nonsense of dark matter:
http://theconversation.com/new-theory-of-general-relativity-casts-doubt-on-dark-matter-16446

Black body radiation is real science and something from nothing is part of nature.

Quantum chmantum...

אבולוציה היא תולדת כח המשיכה

כל כמות החומר ביקום קבועה מאז החל היקום להשתחזר בפעם האחרונה, מאז ה"אחדיות"האחרונה שלו, מאז גרעין הלידה האחרון של היקום טרום המפץ הגדול האחרון.

כל תחומי המדע ("דיסציפלינות") נובעים מן, מתחילים ונגמרים, מתפתחים ונמשכים בהכוונת ובמסגרת כח המשיכה. הכל בכל מכל כל ביקום הוא עקב כח המשיכה.

כל תצורת חומר ביקום קיימת, בגלל וכמו היקום עצמו, בשני מצבים: במצב אינרטי כגון החומר (כנראה הגרוויטונים, החלקיקים היסודיים של היקום) המאוחסן בחורים השחורים ו/או במצב אנרגטי, בתנועה,המסוגל לכן לבצע עבודה. בגלל שניות זו של חומר-אנרגיה קבועה ביקום גם כל כמות האנרגיה.

מאז המפץ הגדול האחרון מתחולל בכל תצורות החומר ביקום אותו תהליך החוזר ונשנה אשר מתחולל במכלול היקום עצמו : לידה-התפתחות-הישרדות-שיחזור עצמי . על מנת לשרוד ולעבור את כל התהליך חייבת כל תצורת חומר להישמר במתכונת אנרגטית. היות וכמות החומר/אנרגיה ביקום קבועה מתחרות ביניהן כל תצורות החומר על השגת חומר/אנרגיה כי כל תצורת חומר שורדת, פעילה, רק אם הצליחה "לבלוע" אנרגיה. אם אינה "מצליחה" להשיג אנרגיה היא נבלעת ע"י תצורת חומר אחרת ומשמשת לה אנרגיה. אכול או היאכל.

Evolution Derives From Gravity

The quantity of mass in the universe is constant since the universe started its last self-replication, since its last singularity, its last pre-big bang re-birth conception.

All Science Disciplines derive from, start and end, evolve and survive in the direction and manner set by the framework of gravity, the monotheism of the universe. All things, everything in the universe, derive from the gravity of the universe. Every mass format exists, like the universe itself, in one of two states: in an inert state like the material (most probably the gravitons, the elementary particles of the universe) stored in black holes, and in an energetic state, in motion therefore capable of performing work. Due to this mass-energy dualism also the quantity of energy in the universe is constant.

Since the last big-bang all mass formats undergo the same cyclic sequence like the universe itself i.e. birth – evolution – survival – replication. In order to survive and to repeat this sequence every mass format must remain in an energetic state. And since the universe mass/energy quantity is constant there is a melee for it by all mass formats, and the unlucky formats are swallowed and digested by the luckier mass formats.
It’s indeed, in fact, an eat or be eaten universe…

Dov Henis (comments from 22nd century)
http://universe-life.com/
http://universe-life.com/2011/07/13/greed-cancer-cells-follow-laws-of-evolution/

The comments above are amazingly good on this subject. i like the sponge analogy.

It is rather futile however for human intelligence to try to figure out space/time and gravity for we lack the intelligence to. It is pitiful that we want to understand so much and simply can not grasp it. We border on it but can't quite grasp it.

Around 1990 I proposed that 3d space/time is a three dimensional alternating grid of space "bits" and time"bits" alternating one after another on all three axes. If you imagine a three dimensional checkerboard, and the alternating black and red cubes stacked together represent space/time. Red cubes, call them "space bits" and black cubes, call them "time bits". In normal speeds under C, you "go" from one place in the universe to another by using an equal amount of space bits as time bits. But as you approach and then equal speed C, you use less time bits, much more space bits which Einstein says will result in your space ship acquiring infinite mass and infinite energy at C and time for the space ship stops, that is, your space ship uses no time bits and infinite amount of space bits. This would be the speed limit Einstein predicted, that is, if you use zero time bits and an infinite amount of space bits, you simply can NOT use more space bits because you are already using an infinite amount of them. Therefore excess of speed C is impossible in our present time/space grid. That is, there can be no "warp drive" as in Star Trek of exceeding C

Then how do you trick space/time into allowing your space ship to travel outside our space/time constraint so you can use yet more space bits and still zero time bits? Or duck out of the grid altogether and emerge back into it but in a different location but in the same time line?

That's what research into intersteller travel will involve, given human intelligence can get that far and unfortunately I don't think it can.

I may be way wrong on my postulate of space and time bits but that model fits the present in which we live...or should I say the present in which we live fits the concept of alternating space and time bits in a 3d grid.

Exit out of 3d and into 4d may be the ticket then reentry into 3d at a different point than the one you left from.

Evolution Derives From Gravity, in Hebrew and in plain English, not in academEnglish verbiage


אבולוציה היא תולדת כח המשיכה

כל כמות החומר ביקום קבועה מאז החל היקום להשתחזר בפעם האחרונה, מאז ה"אחדיות"האחרונה שלו, מאז גרעין הלידה האחרון של היקום טרום המפץ הגדול האחרון.

כל תחומי המדע ("דיסציפלינות") נובעים מן, מתחילים ונגמרים, מתפתחים ונמשכים בהכוונת ובמסגרת כח המשיכה. הכל בכל מכל כל ביקום הוא עקב כח המשיכה.

כל תצורת חומר ביקום קיימת, בגלל וכמו היקום עצמו, בשני מצבים: במצב אינרטי כגון החומר (כנראה הגרוויטונים, החלקיקים היסודיים של היקום) המאוחסן בחורים השחורים ו/או במצב אנרגטי, בתנועה,המסוגל לכן לבצע עבודה. בגלל שניות זו של חומר-אנרגיה קבועה ביקום גם כל כמות האנרגיה.

מאז המפץ הגדול האחרון מתחולל בכל תצורות החומר ביקום אותו תהליך החוזר ונשנה אשר מתחולל במכלול היקום עצמו : לידה-התפתחות-הישרדות-שיחזור עצמי . על מנת לשרוד ולעבור את כל התהליך חייבת כל תצורת חומר להישמר במתכונת אנרגטית. היות וכמות החומר/אנרגיה ביקום קבועה מתחרות ביניהן כל תצורות החומר על השגת חומר/אנרגיה כי כל תצורת חומר שורדת, פעילה, רק אם הצליחה "לבלוע" אנרגיה. אם אינה "מצליחה" להשיג אנרגיה היא נבלעת ע"י תצורת חומר אחרת ומשמשת לה אנרגיה. אכול או היאכל.

Evolution Derives From Gravity

The quantity of mass in the universe is constant since the universe started its last self-replication, since its last singularity, its last pre-big bang re-birth conception.

All Science Disciplines derive from, start and end, evolve and survive in the direction and manner set by the framework of gravity, the monotheism of the universe. All things, everything in the universe, derive from the gravity of the universe. Every mass format exists, like the universe itself, in one of two states: in an inert state like the material (most probably the gravitons, the elementary particles of the universe) stored in black holes, and in an energetic state, in motion therefore capable of performing work. Due to this mass-energy dualism also the quantity of energy in the universe is constant.

Since the last big-bang all mass formats undergo the same cyclic sequence like the universe itself i.e. conception/singularity, birth /big bang – evolution/survival/inflaton/expansion/re-congregating in black holel – replication/repeat singularity etc,. In order to survive and to repeat this sequence every mass format must remain in an energetic state. And since the universe mass/energy quantity is constant there is a melee for it by all mass formats, and the unfortunate formats are swallowed and digested by the fortunate mass formats.

It’s indeed, in fact, an eat or be eaten universe…

Dov Henis (comments from 22nd century)
http://universe-life.com/

I've read the story and all comments.
These persons simply don't know what they are talking about.
LOL

Einstein comprehended/elucidated gravity ?
NO, and neither Newton nor Darwin nor anyone else until insignificate I elucidated it…
But I don’t count. I‘m transparent since I ‘m an independent free-lance….

https://www.sciencenews.org/blog/context/amateur-who-helped-einstein-see-light?utm_source=Society+for+Science+Newsletters&utm_campaign=3c56cdb8ed-]editors_picks_week_of_October_3_2015_10_3_2015&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_a4c415a67f-3c56cdb8ed-

גיחי גיחי גיחי כל השומע את הנ'ל יצחק עד אפס מקום וכלתה רעה מן הארץ....
The ONLY scientific elucidation/implications of gravitation are by Dov Henis.
Yes, no mistake - correct your comprehension/information.

The Difference Between The Universe And Earthlife Cyclic Evolutions
April 18, 2015

A.
The Universe And Earthlife Cyclic Evolutions : Whence, whither and how nature drives
life/humanity

מאין ,לאן ואיך מוביל הטבע את החיים/האנושותGravity is the
monotheism of the universe
(Hebrew and English)
September 15,2014

Whence, whither and how nature drives life/humanity
http://universe-life.com/2014/...
מאין ,לאן ואיך
מוביל הטבע את החיים/האנושות
Again, The
Universe/ Life Relationship, embarrassingly obvious/simple elucidation…
B.
The Difference Between The Universe And Earthlife Re-Cyclic Evolutions
April 18,2015

Earthlife re-cyclic evolutions are temporary components of the universe re-cyclic
evolution. Life evolutions are innately evolutionary genome-based memory-continuums, whereas the universe re-cyclic evolutions (approx each 20 billion, 20X10^9,years ) are each fresh, completely devoid of earlier memory due to/via singularity, dual- poles mass-energy systems.

Dov Henis (comments from22nd century, one of the many humans with highly exaggerated self-esteem)
http://universe-life.com/

Life is the cheapest commodity on Earth
Earth Life Genesis
http://universe-life.com/2011/...
Seed Of Human-Chimp Genomes Diversity
http://universe-life.com/2011/...

Genetics is modifications of genome’s expressions in response to cultural variations, i.e. to behavioral
modifications in response to circumstantial variations. DH
גנטיקה היא
שינויים/היענות של התנהגות/תרבות של
בעלי-החיים גנים/גנום עקב אתגרים של שינויים במסיבות החיים, כפי שהראה פבלוב לגבי כלבים
ומערך הכסף והבנקאות הם ההתחכמות העדיין בעייתית של האדם
לדרישת הטבע להצטיד באנרגיה ולהשתמש בה להישרדות…

Beyond historical concepts natural selection is E (energy) temporarily constrained in
an m (mass) format. Period.

The still problematic money/banking system is the system-based human circumvention of nature’s cruel drive of the ruthless natural selection melee due to the constancy of mass/energy
contents in the universe… DH
=================
על המחדל המדעי-כלכלי של ישראל מנובמבר 2013:

מדברי מנכ'לית אינטל ישראל (שותפים למחדל)
"חייבים ללמודלחשוב..".
?ללמוד לחשוב? בישראל? במדינת החיקוי הנלעג של התרבות האמריקאית?

להלן דוגמת החיקוי העלובה מנובמבר 2013 - מועד ההבנה, בישראל
,של המהות והמשמעות של כח המשיכה ביקום :
From
http://universe-life.com/2014/...
PS: Note, again:
- Classical Science Is
Anticipated/Replaced By The 2013 Gravity Comprehension !!!
- Think of the consequences re classical
science of this comprehension of gravity…
DH
נ.ב. הבנת מהות כח המשיכה מספקת בסיס הגיוני מפשט/צפוי/מתקן לכל מגזרי
ורכיבי המדע הקלסי.
יש פה אי- ניצול של הזדמנות/אפשרות של ישראל להדיח באלגנטיות מתורבתת
את ארה”ב מעמדתה בעולם כמוליכה/המקבעת של עדר ה”מדענים/מדע” באמצעות האיגוד
המקצועי האמריקאי הדתי של ה”מדענים”, ולתפוס את עמדת
ההולכה/פיתוח/הובלה של המדע 2013 החדש המשתדרג, ולהפוך את המדע האמריקאי לגרורה של
המדע הישראלי. אי-ניצול זה הוא מחדל מדעי וכלכלי מטומטם /נלעג/מביש של
ישראל....
דב הניס (הארות מהמאה ה-22)
Dov Henis (comments from 22nd century)
http://universe-life.com/
=======================
Re social network email messages and updates for
Dov Henis
December 19, 2014
Thank you .
Your contact is greatly appreciated.
However, please be advised: I am not involved
in any “social network “.
At age 90, following a Nov 2013 stroke, now doing
best to recover essential daily functions, my interest and PC time are devoted
mostly to the further expansion/ presentation of my Scientism worldview/
comprehensions. I feel exasperated that the world
science community apparently does not yet comprehend/appreciate the vast
implications of my Nov 2013 comprehension/elucidation/definition of the
nature of natural gravity.…
Thanks again for your kind contact
And best regards…
Dov Henis


Near about 14 billion years ago Allah/God the big bang and started evolution, now 7 divisible gravitation.
“Gravitational worlds, they are moving or changing the orbit with their all family members depending on the nuclear of each other”. In this way- There has been incidence of full view of the universe at the very exact copy/invitation of the visible diagram solar system in the gravitation world. The universe has seven divisible, the first one of which is unit and the rest six are collective. The collective six gravitation are three invisible and the rest three are visible. The visible gravitation worlds are stars, planets and minor planets. The invisible gravitation worlds are black holes of various energy levels, the first one of which is the primordial black hole or Allah/God of the nuclear fusion of the universe. There have been collective six gravitation divisible of the big bang in future from the big black hole or Allah/God. At the first phase or level of the divisible is the black hole of the nuclear fusion of the clusters of galaxies or black hole named quasar. The second phase gravitation world of the quasars in future are of the black hole named pulsar or nuclear fusion of the cluster of galaxies. The third gravitation world of the pulsars in future is of the last black holes or nucleus of galaxy or the nuclear fusion of the constellations.

New Discovery of the Universe: https://shahidurrahmansikder.wordpress.com/tag/god/

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