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September 30, 2013

Mystery Alien Planets Confound Astronomers

 

Exoplanet

"We don't really know what they are," said Björn Benneke, a graduate student in astronomy at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology referring to intriguing exoplanets found that are bigger than our rocky, oceanic Earth but smaller than cold, gas-shrouded Uranus and Neptune. "They can be a scaled-down version of the giant planets in our solar system, a scaled-up version of terrestrial planets like Earth, or something completely different."

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"Black Holes Develop a 'Charge' that Anchors Them to the Universe" --New Theory


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A black hole. A simple and clear concept, at least according to the hypothesis by Roy Kerr, who in 1963 proposed a "clean" black hole model, which is the current theoretical paradigm. From theory to reality things may be quite different. According to a new research carried out by a group of scientists that includes Thomas Sotiriou, a physicist of the International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA) of Trieste, black holes may be more complex than Kerr believed.

Continue reading ""Black Holes Develop a 'Charge' that Anchors Them to the Universe" --New Theory" »

"Star Wars Redux" --Harvard and MIT Scientists Create New State of Matter


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"Most of the properties of light we know about originate from the fact that photons are massless, and that they do not interact with each other," said Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin. "What we have done is create a special type of medium in which photons interact with each other so strongly that they begin to act as though they have mass, and they bind together to form molecules. This type of photonic bound state has been discussed theoretically for quite a while, but until now it hadn't been observed.

Continue reading ""Star Wars Redux" --Harvard and MIT Scientists Create New State of Matter" »

"Alien Planet Spy" --Spitzer Infrared Space Observatory Re-Engineered for New Mission

 

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Now approaching its 10th anniversary, NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope has evolved into a premier observatory for an endeavor not envisioned in its original design: the study of worlds around other stars, called exoplanets. While the engineers and scientists who built Spitzer did not have this goal in mind, their work made this unexpected capability possible. Thanks to the extraordinary stability of its design and a series of subsequent engineering reworks, the space telescope now has observational powers far beyond its original limits and expectations.

Continue reading ""Alien Planet Spy" --Spitzer Infrared Space Observatory Re-Engineered for New Mission" »

Destroyed Dwarf Galaxy --"A Clue to Evolution of Supermassive Black Holes and Galaxies"

 

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In February of 2012, astronomers using NASA's Hubble Space Telescope discovered a cluster of young, blue stars in the spectacular edge-on galaxy (ESO 243-49 above), encircling the first intermediate-mass black hole ever found. The presence of the star cluster suggests that the black hole was once at the core of a now-disintegrated dwarf galaxy. The discovery of the black hole and the star cluster has important implications for understanding the evolution of supermassive black holes and galaxies.

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September 28, 2013

Discovered! A Galaxy with Density of Stars 15,000 Times Greater than Milky Way

 

M60

 

The densest galaxy in the nearby Universe may have been found. Packed with an extraordinary number of stars, M60-UCD1 is an "ultra-compact dwarf galaxy". Remarkably, about half of this mass is found within a radius of only about 80 light years. This would make the density of stars about 15,000 times greater than found in Earth's neighborhood in the Milky Way, meaning that the stars are about 25 times closer. It was discovered with NASA's Hubble Space Telescope and follow-up observations were done with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and ground-based optical telescopes.The galaxy, known as M60-UCD1, is located near a massive elliptical galaxy NGC 4649, also called M60, about 54 million light years from Earth.

Continue reading "Discovered! A Galaxy with Density of Stars 15,000 Times Greater than Milky Way" »

September 27, 2013

Mars' Gale-Crater Science Instrument Finds High % of Water

 

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The first scoop of soil analyzed by the analytical suite in the belly of NASA's Curiosity rover reveals that fine materials on the surface of the planet contain several percent water by weight. The sample also released significant carbon dioxide, oxygen and sulfur compounds when heated.

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NASA's First Mars' Rock Similar to Those on Earth's Ocean Islands

 

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The first rock that scientists analyzed on Mars with a pair of chemical instruments aboard the Curiosity rover turned out to be amazing – a pyramid-shaped volcanic rock called a "mugearite" that is unlike any other Martian igneous rock ever found. Dubbed "Jake_M" – after Jet Propulsion Laboratory engineer Jake Matijevic – the rock is similar to mugearites found on Earth, typically on ocean islands and in continental rifts. The process through which these rocks form often suggests the presence of water deep below the surface, according to Martin Fisk, an Oregon State University marine geologist and member of the Mars Science Laboratory team.

Continue reading "NASA's First Mars' Rock Similar to Those on Earth's Ocean Islands" »

Puzzle of Stellar Evolution --"The Interaction of Comsic Clouds of Dust & Hydrogen"

 

Cielo

For astrophysicists, the interplay of hydrogen — the most common molecule in the universe — and the vast clouds of dust that fill the voids of interstellar space has been an intractable puzzle of stellar evolution. The dust, astronomers believe, is a key phase in the life cycle of stars, which are formed in dusty nurseries throughout the cosmos. But how the dust interacts with hydrogen and is oriented by the magnetic fields in deep space has proved a six-decade-long theoretical challenge.

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Mars' Chemistry Glitch Complicates Search for Ancient Life

 

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The quest for evidence of life on Mars could be more difficult than scientists previously thought. A chemical in the Martian soil that interferes with the techniques used by the Curiosity rover to test for traces of life. The chemical causes the evidence to burn away during the tests. In search of clues to life's presence on Mars -- now or in the past -- Curiosity checks Martian soil and rocks for molecules known as organic carbon compounds that are the hallmark of living organisms on Earth.

Continue reading "Mars' Chemistry Glitch Complicates Search for Ancient Life" »




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