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"An Unknown Force of the Universe is Acting on Dark Matter"


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Today, on the 4th of July, a European team of astronomers led by Hongsheng Zhao of the SUPA Centre of Gravity at the University of St Andrews are prsenting a radical new theory at the RAS National Astronomy Meeting in St Andrews. Their theory suggests that the Milky Way and Anromeda galaxies collided some 10 billion years ago and that our understanding of gravity is fundamentally wrong. Remarkably, this would neatly explain the observed structure of the two galaxies and their satellites.

Dr. Zhao is not unused to controversial theories. In 2009, he led An international team of astronomers that found an unexpected link between mysterious 'dark matter' and the visible stars and gas in galaxies that could revolutionise our current understanding of gravity. Zhao suggested that an unknown force is acting on dark matter.

Only 4% of the universe is made of known material. Stars and gas in galaxies move so fast that astronomers have speculated that the gravity from a hypothetical invisible halo of dark matter is needed to keep galaxies together. However, a solid understanding of dark matter as well as direct evidence of its existence has remained elusive.

The team believes that the interactions between dark and ordinary matter could be more important and more complex than previously thought, and even speculate that dark matter might not exist and that the anomalous motions of stars in galaxies are due to a modification of gravity on extragalactic scales.

"The dark matter seems to 'know' how the visible matter is distributed. They seem to conspire with each other such that the gravity of the visible matter at the characteristic radius of the dark halo is always the same," said Dr. Benoit Famaey (Universities of Bonn and Strasbourg). "This is extremely surprising since one would rather expect the balance between visible and dark matter to strongly depend on the individual history of each galaxy.

"The pattern that the data reveal is extremely odd. It's like finding a zoo of animals of all ages and sizes miraculously having identical, say, weight in their backbones or something. It is possible that a non-gravitational fifth force is ruling the dark matter with an invisible hand, leaving the same fingerprints on all galaxies, irrespective of their ages, shapes and sizes."

Such a force might solve an even bigger mystery, known as 'dark energy', which is ruling the accelerated expansion of the Universe. A more radical solution is a revision of the laws of gravity first developed by Isaac Newton in 1687 and refined by Albert Einstein's theory of General Relativity in 1916. Einstein never fully decided whether his equation should add an omnipresent constant source, now called dark energy.

Dr Famaey added, "If we account for our observations with a modified law of gravity, it makes perfect sense to replace the effective action of hypothetical dark matter with a force closely related to the distribution of visible matter."

The implications of the new research could change some of the most widely held scientific theories about the history and expansion of the universe.

Lead researcher Dr. Gianfranco Gentile at the University of Ghent concluded, "Understanding this puzzling conspiracy is probably the key to unlock the formation of galaxies and their structures."

Journal Reference: Gianfranco Gentile, Benoit Famaey, HongSheng Zhao, Paolo Salucci. Universality of galactic surface densities within one dark halo scale-length. Nature, 2009; 461 (7264): 627 DOI: 10.1038/nature08437

The Daily Galaxy via University of St. Andrews and


This is exact! Dark matter is simply and invisible force, and energy field per say. I believe its also the same force that exist hidden in the same area's of planets stations. Its responsible for rotations of the entire planetary systems all the way from magnetic sphere to core rotations. Dead stars have weaker fields. Its also the force that remains after super nova's and create black holes. Its all connected. Great article and great work by Dr Famaey.

73% of the pie of all things (all matter and energy) is "dark energy" -- the repulsive force behind the continuing expansion of the universe, which is accelerating. Einstein's cosmological constant (which he thought was a blunder) is indeed real. The real question is, what is the origin of dark energy? What exactly is this force? Dark energy is a force or forces that are external to the physical universe but which act upon it, such that the total pie of all matter and energy is steadily increasing. In other words, the mass of the universe is increasing, and the universe "weighs" more each instant of time. Famaey states: "The dark matter seems to 'know' how the visible matter [baryonic matter] is distributed." This is true.

only one thing is pure truth: that we don`t know everything about tour Universe yet. Probably we`ll never know some things. But assigning intelligence to an invisible subatomic matter is like creating a new religion - actually every time that men didn`t have an answer to something, they created a God to resolve that. I`m sure in the future we`ll have the good answer to the problems, and maybe that will also unify the Newtonian physic with the quantum physic, a new Law for everything.

That force is consciousness guys! Full awareness of everything at all levels. Sacred geometry anyone?

My special thanks to 'European Team' led by Mr. Zhao

I have done detailed work on these topic between March'13 to May'13 and feel very enlighten when my result match with new paper published. I have commented on bellow topic in short [time-to-time] because my work is not right protected.

Please refer some of my comments on this/related topics-

1. my comment on 2nd,july'13 [

2. my comment 5 days ago

3. Out of Box Thinking on 20th,June'13

4. my comment today

I don't believe in dark energy and dark matter, and I don't believe in the fifth element either. The belief that we are the only universe in existence is like believing that the Earth is the center of the universe; when everyone knows that I am the center of the universe. What is creating the expansion of "our" universe? Is the force(s) that are at play creating the expansion of the universe internal or external. At one time theorists speculated that 90% of the universe was made up of dark matter; not it is 4%. As galaxies clump together to form clusters, do universes clump together to, also, form super clusters; containing both mega universes,spiral universes and dwarf universes? The merger of Andromeda and the Milky Way, don't know if it has already occurred, but is an event that will happen; does the same hold true to universes if the number of universes are infinite? If we went to the outer boundaries of the universe; what would we see? When they claimed the world was flat,like your head, and that when you stood on the edge of the world you would fall off. If you went to the edge of the universe you would fall off and land on the other side.

When I suffer from occasional constipation I reach for THE FORCE laxative, it gentil overnight Zen and stool softening agents gets things flowing in the right direction; the power of THE FORCE and the power of gravity. "Use THE FORCE Luke." It is a scientific fact that writer's block is caused by constant constipation. THE FORCE is a recommended remedy for writer's block caused by constant constipation. Remember. When you can't make shit happen, use THE FORCE and you can make it happen.

In a closed Universe, what happens when a gravitational wave hits the "edge" of the Universe? Does it bounce back or cause the Universe to expand? Or maybe both?

Posted by: Gaugain | July 04, 2013 at 10:41 AM

That force is consciousness guys! Full awareness of everything at all levels. Sacred geometry anyone?""

If you would be All Aware then you would Know ALL they did to your Mother from befor She was Born and That even is Nothing against the Fabric of Space and Creation. Mankind Will Need one million Years to Develop the Capacity and Knowledgefields to Understand What Creation Who and What God and What Life IS. And the Fabric of Space.

Mankind is still in the Healing from the deluge and when She is Healed Her Evolution She never Had Can Start.

" dark matter", matter can be viewed as ful of universe.
the hot gas in the X-ray spectrum would have dispersed, if it is in place only the by gravity of the mass that is producing light in this image (the so-called "luminous mass"). The nature ofthis dark matter, and the associated "missing mass problem", is one of the fundamental cosmological issues of modern astrophysics.
Hot Dark Matter and Cold Dark MatterDiscussions of dark matter typically consider two extremes
*.Hot Dark Matter
*.Cold Dark MatterHot dark matter is composed of particles that havezero or near-zero mass (the neutrinos are a prime example). The Special Theory of Relativity requires that massless particles move at the speed of light and that nearly massless particles move at nearly the speed of light. Thus, such very low mass particlesmust move at very highvelocities and thus form (by the kinetic theory of gases) very hot gases.
On the other hand, cold dark matter is composed of objects sufficiently massive that they move at sub-relativistic velocities. They thus form much colder gases. The difference between cold dark matter and hot dark matter is significant in the formation of structure, because the high velocities of hot dark matter cause it to wipeout structure on small scales

Perhaps it's high time to revisit Wilhelm Reich's research into orgone energy. He posited that it is this energy that is responsible for the gravitational effect that keeps the planets rotating around stars in their orbits, what helps galaxies to merge orderly, etc.

If our understanding of the universe was put into a medical context, we aren't even using leaches yet. Heck, we aren't even aware leaches exist. Laymen that are well-read in astronomy and cosmology tend to tune out dark matter because it highlights the ignorance of the pros. Many professionals have devoted too much of their careers to dark matter, which is why so many label dark matter-agnostics as deniers or downright fools. Dark matter is controversial because it requires faith. I don't have faith in god, I'm definitely not having faith in a group of scientists that have their own interests to protect. Now we have a mysterious force interacting with another mysterious force. Where does it end? It turns off the general public to science and much of the funding given to science is directly related to the public's interest in a particular area.

All illusive "dark matter and energy issues" origin from the lack of the consensus scientists not taking cosmic electricity and magnetism seriously in the cosmological theories and it also lacks from the hypothesis of "a beginning" instead of having a cosmic view of eternal creation and circuits.

Dark Matter = X seems like the only one here who is rational. Thanks for taking the time to bring a healthy dose of reason to an unreasonable discussion.

What I meant by questioning the quality of article was that it promotes comments like this because it just states few ideas from some hypothesis or "research" without giving any counterarguments. It doesn't explain the reasons behind the idea nor it gives us any details. How does this idea explain the redshift from galaxy clusters, gravitational lensing and other lines of evidence for dark matter, none of which can be explained by modifying gravity?

I guess I'll just go on back to ignoring the comments.

This article says, essentially, maybe we should revise the mathematics of gravity to account for dark matter (and maybe dark energy too). It asserts that if we do that, perhaps it would explain the shapes of Andromeda and the Milky Way, at least if we assume they have collided previously.

There is no science in the article, merely a few assertions about science. There is no explanation whatsoever of the way this newly supposed "force" is supposed to work, not even in science-writer-popular-science terms. And when did your comments sections turn into fanboy fiction?

An interesting debate spurred by this article, centred on whether this latest scientific paradox implicates intelligence at work in the universe. Look at it this way. If some spiritual superbeing did indeed say "Let there be Light," and Light thereafter became the beacon of spiritual intellect, which it has done, then we have to accede to the polarity of the universe - underlined by symmetry - to bring us Dark. I personally don't believe that one is 'better' than the other but would hedge bets that they both have an important part to play in our psychology. Dark, typically, doesn't want to be found and is resisting all attempts to shove it into a categorised box. Bless it.

We observe things about the universe we live in ourselves. Objectivity is better through observing it from outside! How to do it is our problem to solve!

The 'conspiracy theory' of gravity:

"The dark matter seems to 'know' how the visible matter is distributed. They seem to >conspireinvisible hand< leaving the same fingerprints on all galaxies, irrespective of their ages, shapes and sizes."

This was all solved decades ago. Why physicists can't part with their mysterious religion is the real enigma...

Dewey B. Larson's own theory, first published in the 1959 book _The Structure of the Physical Universe_, considers gravity as a 3-dimensional, inward scalar motion that counters the effect of the scalar expansion of the universe. It also holds the unique position that it does not require any curvature of space, any type of force field, any medium or aether, nor any particles or waves to reach out and pull on other masses. The only requirement is that there exists a reciprocal relation of an amount of space s, to a quantity of time t, represented as a velocity s/t—that of motion.

" current practice motion is defined in a manner which excludes scalar motion. The prevailing view is that motion is a change of position relative to some identifiable point or object, and it is assumed that this change can be represented in a coordinate reference system. On this basis, the magnitude and direction of the change are specified by a vector, which occupies a definite position in the reference system. But it is evident that a system of scalar motions cannot be represented in its true character in this spatial reference system, as the system of coordinates has no way of representing simultaneous motion in all directions. In order to make representation possible, the scalar system must be coupled to the reference system at some particular point, the reference point, as we will call it. This point, or the object at that location, is then seen as stationary, or moving vectorially independently of the scalar motion, while all other points or objects in the scalar system are portrayed as moving inward toward, or outward away from, the reference point.

"In the case of the galaxies, we take our galaxy as the reference object, and view all of the distant galaxies as moving radially outward from our location. But it can easily be seen that the directions thus imputed to the galactic motions are determined by the coupling to the reference system, and are not inherent in the motions themselves."

Is this spooky information sharing between dark matter and normal visible matter the same as the spooky information sharing between subatomic particles at great distances ?

Hi All,

I believe mass of everything itself create force which bind with external force. There is no such force called gravity for me. It's the mass on any object who emit force.

Arguing Physics and Religion is like an accountant telling a mechanic how to fix an engine. It is merit less and convoluted logic. Keep God in Religion and out of science.
I think that soon we will discover that Dark Matter and Dark Energy are remnants of the big bang that was pushed into another dimension by a tear in the Time Space fabric. It was matter that failed to coalesce like it did in our Universe. Since gravity can move between different dimensions it is this that is exerting force in the visible realm. The hidden mass could be as small as half our universe to several times more than our universe but the weakest force of all, gravity, is actually, I think the strongest because it can place a force on all mass in the known and unknown dimensions. It is the Atlas of forces that binds this swarm of beehives we call the Universe and its Multiverses.

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