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New Physics "Most-Wanted" List -- The Hunt for Dark Matter Particles

 

 

            Darkmatter0903


Now that it looks like the hunt for the Higgs boson is over, particles of dark matter are at the top of the physics "Most Wanted" list. Dozens of experiments have been searching for them, but often come up with contradictory results. Theorists from the Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology (KIPAC), a joint SLAC-Stanford institute, believe they've come up with an algorithm – a mathematical description of how the individual dark-matter particles behave – that could help narrow the search for these elusive particles, which are thought to make up more than 25 percent of the matter and energy in the universe.

It starts with assumptions, said Yao-Yuan Mao, lead author of a paper published in The Astrophysical Journal that outlines their new search tool. Assumptions are a good starting point when you don’t know where to look. A popular assumption about dark matter is that it's made up of WIMPs, Weakly Interacting Massive Particles. The "M" in WIMP accounts for gravity's ability to herd these particles around; the "P" and "I" hint at why they're so hard to detect otherwise.

Most dark matter detectors are based on the assumption that, every once in a while, a WIMP must smack into the nucleus of an atom of visible matter, making the nucleus vibrate and releasing a signal. Such disruptions can be detected. But what that disruption looks like and how often it happens depends on yet more assumptions. How heavy is the dark matter particle? How fast is it moving?

Another common assumption that touches on these issues, said Mao, is that collections of WIMPs behave as an ideal gas, a collection of particles that hang out together and occasionally bounce off each other. Sometimes a lucky bounce gives a particle more energy, sending it zooming off at a greater speed. How often particles pick up more energy and more speed depends on how much you turn up the heat or put on the pressure.

But, as far as scientists can tell, turning up the heat and putting on the pressure doesn't affect WIMPs. Only gravity does.

"The Ideal Gas Law doesn't describe a system of particles, like dark matter particles, that don't seem to transfer energy to each other," said Mao. This incorrect description can distort the carefully built picture upon which a search for WIMPs is based. In particular, it means predictions of their velocities can be off by a significant amount, but velocities affect what a detector will see.

Mao and his colleagues have used simulations to provide new insight into how fast WIMPs are expected to move. WIMPs that move fast enough to reach escape velocity and leave the dark matter halo that surrounds the Milky Way take themselves completely out of the hunt. That reduction in the number of WIMPs affects how often one hits the nucleus of an atom in a detector. The remaining WIMPs must be moving more slowly than escape velocity, which affects how hard they can hit. If they hit a detector whose atoms are too massive, the WIMPs bounce off without a sign, like pebbles scattering off a boulder. So the trick is to build a detector out of materials that are a good match for the particle’s expected mass and speed.

As theorist Louis Strigari, another author on the paper, said, "The heavier the WIMP, the more collisions you can detect." But there's a growing suspicion that WIMPs might be as much as 10 times lighter than previously thought. "If WIMPs do have this low mass," said Strigari, "the model used to describe their behavior would have significant effects on an experiment's result."

In fact, Mao, Strigari and Risa Wechsler, a professor at SLAC and Stanford, are now busy interpreting the results of experiments based on their new description, and they believe it explains some of the conflicting results obtained by such experiments as XENON100 (which uses the fairly heavy element xenon as the material for dark matter to smack into) and the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search II, or CDMS II (which took its readings with detectors made from the much lighter element silicon).

KIPAC member Blas Cabrera is a Stanford physics professor and, as a leader of CDMS II, a dark matter hunter from the experimental side. He said the theorists have made an important contribution. "It really emphasizes that, for light-mass WIMPs, different types of detectors would have different responses,” he said.

"I'm actually hoping we can talk the experimental community into using their model," Cabrera added. "It's important to get everyone to agree to use the same parameters so we're comparing apples to apples instead of apples to oranges."

The computer-generated image at the top of the page shows the simulated distribution of dark matter in a galaxy cluster formed in the universe with dark energy. The clumps are locations where galaxies form. 

The Daily Galaxy via SLAC

Image credit: courtesy of Andrey Kravtsov

Comments

The Milky Way's halo is curved spacetime.

Aether has mass. Aether physically occupies three dimensional space. Aether is physically displaced by matter. There is no such thing as non-baryonic dark matter anchored to matter. Matter moves through and displaces the aether.

'NASA's Voyager Hits New Region at Solar System Edge'
http://www.nasa.gov/home/hqnews/2011/dec/HQ_11-402_AGU_Voyager.html

"Voyager is showing that what is outside is pushing back. ... Like cars piling up at a clogged freeway off-ramp, the increased intensity of the magnetic field shows that inward pressure from interstellar space is compacting it."

It is not the particles of matter which exist in quantities less than in any vacuum artificially created on Earth which are pushing back and exerting inward pressure toward the solar system.

It is the aether, which the particles of matter exist in, which is the interstellar medium. It is the aether which is displaced by the matter the solar system consists of which is pushing back and exerting inward pressure toward the solar system.

'Galactic Pile-Up May Point to Mysterious New Dark Force in the Universe'
http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2013/01/musket-ball-dark-force/

"The reason this is strange is that dark matter is thought to barely interact with itself. The dark matter should just coast through itself and move at the same speed as the hardly interacting galaxies. Instead, it looks like the dark matter is crashing into something — perhaps itself – and slowing down faster than the galaxies are. But this would require the dark matter to be able to interact with itself in a completely new an unexpected way, a “dark force” that affects only dark matter."

A 'new dark force' is more speculative than understanding space itself has mass. What is occurring is analogous to the bow waves of two boats which pass by each other. The aether displaced by the galaxies interacts and 'piles-up' as the galaxies pass by each other.

'Ether and the Theory of Relativity by Albert Einstein'
http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Extras/Einstein_ether.html

"the state of the [ether] is at every place determined by connections with the matter and the state of the ether in neighbouring places"

The state of the aether at every place determined by connections with the matter and the state of the aether in neighboring places is the state of displacement of the aether.

'Hubble Finds Ghostly Ring of Dark Matter'
http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/hubble/news/dark_matter_ring_feature.html

"Astronomers using NASA's Hubble Space Telescope got a first-hand view of how dark matter behaves during a titanic collision between two galaxy clusters. The wreck created a ripple of dark mater, which is somewhat similar to a ripple formed in a pond when a rock hits the water."

The 'pond' consists of aether. The analogy are two boats which pass by each other very closely. Their bow waves slosh back and forth and create a ripple in the water.

The Milky Way's halo is what is referred to as the curvature of spacetime.

The Milky Way's halo is the state of displacement of the aether.

The geometrical representation of gravity as curved spacetime physically exists in nature as the state of displacement of the aether.

Displaced aether pushing back and exerting inward pressure toward matter is gravity.

'Offset between dark matter and ordinary matter: evidence from a sample of 38 lensing clusters of galaxies'
http://arxiv.org/PS_cache/arxiv/pdf/1004/1004.1475v1.pdf

"Our data strongly support the idea that the gravitational potential in clusters is mainly due to a non-baryonic fluid, and any exotic field in gravitational theory must resemble that of CDM fields very closely."

The offset is due to the galaxy clusters moving through the aether. The analogy is a submarine moving through the water. You are under water. Two miles away from you are many lights. Moving between you and the lights one mile away is a submarine. The submarine displaces the water. The state of displacement of the water causes the center of the lensing of the light propagating through the water to be offset from the center of the submarine itself. The offset between the center of the lensing of the light propagating through the water displaced by the submarine and the center of the submarine itself is going to remain the same as the submarine moves through the water. The submarine continually displaces different regions of the water. The state of the water connected to and neighboring the submarine remains the same as the submarine moves through the water even though it is not the same water the submarine continually displaces. This is what is occurring physically in nature as the galaxy clusters move through and displace the aether.

'Interpretation of quantum mechanics by the double solution theory - Louis de BROGLIE'
http://aflb.ensmp.fr/AFLB-classiques/aflb124p001.pdf

“When in 1923-1924 I had my first ideas about Wave Mechanics I was looking for a truly concrete physical image, valid for all particles, of the wave and particle coexistence discovered by Albert Einstein in his "Theory of light quanta". I had no doubt whatsoever about the physical reality of waves and particles.”

“any particle, even isolated, has to be imagined as in continuous “energetic contact” with a hidden medium”

The hidden medium of de Broglie wave mechanics is the aether. The “energetic contact” is the state of displacement of the aether.

"For me, the particle, precisely located in space at every instant, forms on the v wave a small region of high energy concentration, which may be likened in a first approximation, to a moving singularity."

A particle is a moving singularity which has an associated aether displacement wave.

In a double slit experiment the particle travels a well defined path which takes it through one slit. The associated wave in the aether passes through both. As the aether wave exits the slits it creates wave interference. As the particle exits a single slit the direction it travels is altered by the wave interference. This is the wave piloting the particle of pilot-wave theory. Detecting the particle strongly exiting a single slit destroys the coherence between the particle and its associated wave in the aether.

What ripples when galaxy clusters collide is what waves in a double slit experiment; the aether.

Einstein's gravitational wave is de Broglie's pilot-wave. Both are waves in the aether.

I agree theres something missing from what these mainstream scientists are doing. That is, its flawed... e.g. by taking a few assumptions from the 1930s or earlier as solid facts. (eg light: the wave in nothing) There is a simpler explanation than dark matter and yes I think it is something like the aether or simple stellar winds (unless thats what you are referring to) this is something a friend was talking about and I think it has some validity: (when he says curvature, he means that gravity-well effect)"Again, I wonder, if the total curvature of the Universe at any one time
has to be conserved, and hence whether there there has to be very slight inverse
curvature in the vast empty voids, to counteract the strong local positive
curvature around galaxies and their constituent stars, gas clouds and
black holes,
and that inverse curvature is effectively enlarging the voids and
pushing the filaments apart in Newtonian space, and not stretching
spacetime". Cool eh? Well I thought it was.
Can you explain that double slit thing with the aether wave a bit more? But it does sound a good idea! I dont get what you mean by detecting it destroys coherence?
Can

The Milky Way's halo is curved spacetime.

The Milky Way's halo is evidence of the correctness of relativity.

The Milky Way's halo is the state of displacement of the aether.

Displaced aether pushing back and exerting inward pressure toward matter is gravity.

In a boat double slit experiment the boat travels through a single slit and the bow wave passes through both. As the bow wave exits the slits it creates wave interference which alters the direction the boat travels.

If there are pilings at the exits to the slits the bow wave interacts with the pilings and becomes many short waves. The boat gets knocked around by the pilings. The boat and its bow wave lose their coherence. The boat travels through the chop. However, the direction the boat travels is not altered greatly by the chop.

The Milky Way's halo is curved spacetime.

The Milky Way's halo is evidence of the correctness of relativity.

The Milky Way's halo is the state of displacement of the aether.

Displaced aether pushing back and exerting inward pressure toward matter is gravity.

In a boat double slit experiment the boat travels through a single slit and the bow wave passes through both. As the bow wave exits the slits it creates wave interference which alters the direction the boat travels.

If there are pilings at the exits to the slits the bow wave interacts with the pilings and becomes many short waves. The boat gets knocked around by the pilings. The boat and its bow wave lose their coherence. The boat travels through the chop. However, the direction the boat travels is not altered greatly by the chop.

What dark matter particles.no such thing exists,only electromagnetic plasma.the same can be said for muons and gluon's and up quarks and down quarks and now the ridiculously named flavoured quarks.then there is anti neutrinos etc etc.all not worth a carrot.and as for the highs boson pervading all of space is beyond belief.as I already stated elsewhere,einsteins equation is e=mc2 so this particle and field of highs is joke.

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