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Comment of the Day --"ET Search and the Speed of Light"

Bizzare Binary Neutron Stars With Gravity 300 Billion Times Earth --Confirms Einstein





An exotic pair of binary stars have proved that Albert Einstein's theory of relativity is still right, even in the most extreme conditions tested yet.  "The unusual pair of stars is quite interesting in its own right but we've learned it is also a unique laboratory for testing the limits of one of our most fundamental physical theories, general relativity" says University of Toronto astronomy professor Marten van Kerkwijk, a member of the research team.

What makes the pair of stars exceptional are the unique characteristics of each and their close proximity to each other. One is a tiny but unusually heavy neutron star – one of the most massive confirmed to date. Named PSR J0348+0432, it is the remnant of a supernova explosion, and is twice as heavy as the Sun yet is only 20 kilometres across. The neutron star is a pulsar that gives off radio waves that can be picked up on Earth by radio telescopes.

The gravity at its surface is more than 300 billion times stronger than that on Earth and at its centre every sugarcube-sized volume has more than one billion tonnes of matter squeezed into it, roughly the mass of every human past and present.

The massive star spins 25 times each second and is orbited by a rather lightweight dwarf star every two and a half hours, an unusually short period. Only slightly less exotic, the white dwarf is the glowing remains of a much lighter star that has lost its envelope and is slowly cooling. It can be observed in visible light, though only with large telescopes – it is about a million times too faint to be visible with the naked eye.

In the new work, led by Bonn PhD student John Antoniadis, very precise timing of the pulsar's spin-modulated emission with radio telescopes was used to discover a tiny but significant change in the orbital period of the binary, of eight-millionths of a second per year. Given the masses of the pulsar and the white dwarf, inferred with the help of observations of the light emitted by the white dwarf – using techniques perfected by Antoniadis and van Kerkwijk – this turns out to match exactly what Einstein's theory predicts.

Einstein's general theory of relativity explains gravity as a consequence of the curvature of spacetime created by the presence of mass and energy. As two stars orbit each other, gravitational waves are emitted – wrinkles moving out in spacetime. As a result, the binary slowly loses energy, the stars move closer, and the orbital period shortens.

The test posed by PSR J0348+0432 is particularly interesting because the massive star is a truly extreme object in terms of gravity, even compared to other pulsars that have been used to test general relativity. As a result, it causes exceptionally strong distortion of spacetime. In many alternatives to Einstein's theory, this would cause the orbit to lose energy much faster than is observed.

"The observations disprove these alternatives," says van Kerkwijk, "and thus give further confidence that Einstein's theory is a good description of nature – even though we know it is not a complete one, given the unresolved inconsistencies with quantum mechanics."

"We really are just at the beginning of our studies of this massive and bizarre stellar object," says Antoniadis. "It may become the new standard for testing general relativity as time goes on."

In the Chandra image at the top of the page, four bright, variable X-ray sources were discovered within 3 light years of Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*). The variability suggests these are X-ray binary systems where a black hole or neutron star is pulling matter from a nearby companion star. Such a high concentration of X-ray binaries in this region is strong circumstantial evidence that a dense swarm of 10,000 or more stellar-mass black holes and neutron stars has formed around Sgr A*.

The Daily Galaxy via University of Toronto


Discrete Scale Relativity predicts that the total masses of gravitationally bound stellar systems will have discrete values that are integer multiples of 0.145 solar mass.

The Pulsar-White Dwarf system reported in Science (04/26/13) has a total mass of 2.182 +/- 0.04 solar mass. [available at .]

This value agrees with one of DSR’s definitively predicted values at the 99.997% level (15 times 0.145 solar mass = 2.175 solar mass).

For 14 other definitive predictions, see: .

For more observational evidence of discrete stellar masses, see prediction #10 at the link above.

Robert L. Oldershaw
Discrete Scale Relativity/Fractal Cosmology

What do you get when you adjust the cosmological observations to your equations and cosmological ideas?

Of course Einstein´s ideas still are confirmed as long as the scientists use his ideas and insert the consensus mathematical equations and “cosmological laws”. But as long as the scientists look at cosmos from a gravity point of view, they´ll keep on being surprised.

It is all in all really very strange. Scientists still uses the Newtonian ideas of gravity when describing a cosmology that Einstein himself discarded: “Neutron stars are very heavy” – but in fact they are just very fast rotational magnetic orbs. Einstein´s “curved space” and Newton´s and Kepler´s “celestial motion around a gravity point” are both contradicted by the galactic rotation anomaly.

“Curvation”, contraction and expansion are all very natural effects of electricity and the following magnetic fields of circuits and it is unbelievable that modern astrophysicist, cosmologists and theoretical mathematicians still are stuck in the ancient Newtonian and Einsteinian ideas that still produce more anomalies and “surprises” than real cosmological knowledge.

Ivar Nielsen
Natural Philosopher

well anyway, very interesting.

What do you get when you adjust the cosmological observations to your equations and cosmological ideas?

I would have a hard time believing that it is even remotely possible to detect a timing difference of eight-millionths of a second per year. We can't even detect the orbital period of Earth at such a precision, yet we can do this with objects which are light years away?

I would also say that the experiment is more disproving other theories than confirming Einstein's theory since they are simply not observing the larger orbital decays predicted by these other alternatives.

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