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Image of the Day: The Vela Pulsar --"A Vast, Natural Particle Accelerator"



The Vela pulsar is a neutron star about 12 miles in diameter, itself spinning at a dizzying 11 times per second and the brightest and most persistent source of gamma rays in the sky. The pulsar and the supernova remnant was created by a massive star which exploded over 10,000 years ago. Due to its behavior, it produces tremendously powerful electric and magnetic fields, which go on to accelerate particles in the remnant to nearly the speed of light. In effect, the pulsar is producing a vast, natural particle accelerator.

The wide-angle view of the Vela pulsar and its pulsar wind nebula above are shown against a background of clouds, or filaments, of multi-million degree Celsius gas. These clouds are part of a huge sphere of hot expanding gas produced by the supernova explosion associated with the creation of the Vela pulsar about 10,000 years ago.

As the ejecta from the explosion expanded into space and collided with the surrounding interstellar gas, shock waves were formed and heated the gas and ejecta to millions of degrees. The sphere of hot gas is about 100 light years across, 15 times larger than the region shown in this image, and is expanding at a speed of about 400,000 km/hr.

The pulsar is considered to be one of the most fascinating images ever captured by the Chandra X-ray Observatory, revealing a striking, almost unbelievable, structure consisting of bright rings and jets of matter. Such structures indicate that mighty ordering forces must be at work amidst the chaos of the aftermath of a supernova explosion. Forces can harness the energy of thousands of suns and transform that energy into a tornado of high-energy particles that astronomers refer to as a "pulsar wind nebula."

The Vela pulsar is the collapsed stellar core within the Vela supernova remnant --the massive star that formed this structure blew up between 11,000 and 12,300 years ago, astronomers have established. 
More massive than the Sun, it has the density of an atomic nucleus.The pulsar's electric and magnetic fields accelerate particles to nearly the speed of light, powering the compact x-ray emission nebula revealed in the Chandra image below.



The Daily Galaxy via Fermi Space Telescope

Image credit: NASA, DOE, International Fermi LAT Collaboration,, and NASA/CXC/PSU/G.Pavlov et al


Check out bowl shaped Magnetic fields on YouTube.. Velar pulsar explained Not that mumbo jumbo presented here

Phase-Coherent Amplification
of Matter Waves in Velar Pulsar
Formation of Bragg’s reflection forming diffraction gratings in between electron/ in between matter wave guide is operative neutron scattering the speed may be greater than that of velocity of light forming a Einstein’s spooky action at a distance at root 2 c velocity of 1.414 c forming an i mass. The mass transfer may be along compressive and expanding along super string electromagnetic waves according to Einstein’ mass energy equation according to the velocity of particle.
m=im at squre root2 c velocity. When the relative velocity is zero, is simply equal to 1, and the relativistic mass is reduced to the rest mass as one can see in the next two equations below. As the velocity increases toward the speed of light c, the denominator of the right side approaches zero, and consequently approaches infinity. Even though Einstein initially used the expressions "longitudinal" and "transverse" mass in two papers (see previous section), in his first paper on (1905) he treated m as what would now be called the rest mass.[20] In later years Einstein expressed his dislike of the idea of "relativistic mass":[21
It is not good to introduce the concept of the mass of a moving body for which no clear definition can be given. It is better to introduce no other mass concept than the ’rest mass’ m. Instead of introducing M it is better to mention the expression for the momentum and energy of a body in motion.
— Albert Einstein in letter to Lincoln Barnett, 19 June 1948 (quote from L. B. Okun (1989), p. 42[1
No Einstein was correct about his wrong notion. The mass disappeares into blackhole space as i mass at squareroot 2 c velocity applicable as matter wave in between two diffraction gratings of Vela pulsar
Sankaravelayudhan Nandakumar.Hubble Telescope ,Cambridge-Oxford-imperial Astro physicist research Scholar
Furthermore, it should
be possible to make a ring cavity for matter
waves using multiple Bragg diffractions as
mirrors. By combining such a matter-wave
cavity and the phase-coherent amplification
mechanism demonstrated here, it should be
possible to construct a new type of highbrightness
atom laser.
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Blackholes ejecting super velocity stars along with planets after swallowing the star partner
New mechanism of absorption and ejection by blackholes as dual force operative breaking the old rules forming Neil Bohr-Pauli Exclusion dynamics
When matter falls into these behemoths, some material also is accelerated away, usually in two straight beams that fly out along the black hole’s spin axis. As matter falls into the black hole, the matter’s magnetic field gets twisted and amplified by the black hole’s spin, and this pumped-up magnetic field launches material outward in the form of jets.
"The most commonly accepted mechanism for doing so involves interacting with the supermassive black hole at the galactic core. That means when you trace the star back to its birthplace, it comes from the center of our galaxy. None of these hypervelocity stars come from the center, which implies that there is an unexpected new class of hypervelocity star, one with a different ejection mechanism."
Astrophysicists calculate that a star must get a million-plus mile-per-hour kick relative to the motion of the galaxy to reach escape velocity. They also estimate that the Milky Way's central black hole has a mass equivalent to four million suns, large enough to produce a gravitational force strong enough to accelerate stars to hyper velocities. The typical scenario involves a binary pair of stars that get caught in the black hole's grip. As one of the stars spirals in toward the black hole, its companion is flung outward at a tremendous velocity. So far, 18 giant blue hypervelocity stars have been found that could have been produced by such a mechanism.
For the origin of hypervelocity bodies, Ginsburg and his colleagues point to the close interaction of a binary star system -- two stars orbiting a common center -- with a massive black hole. The likely scenario is the black hole draws one of the pair into its gravitational well while simultaneously ejecting the other at 1.5 million miles per hour. More than 20 of these hypervelocity stars have been identified in the Milky Way.
Munching Binaries: One is Captured, One Speeds Away
"The hypervelocity stars we see come from binary stars that stray close to the galaxy's massive black hole," he says. "The hole peels off one binary partner, while the other partner -- the hypervelocity star -- gets flung out in a gravitational slingshot."
"We put the numbers together for observed hypervelocity stars and other evidence, and found that the rate of binary encounters [with our galaxy's supermassive black hole] would mean most of the mass of the galaxy's black hole came from binary stars," Bromley says. "We estimated these interactions for supermassive black holes in other galaxies and found that they too can grow to billions of solar masses in this way."
As many as half of all stars are in binary pairs, so they are plentiful in the Milky Way and other galaxies, he adds. But the study assumed conservatively that only 10 percent of stars exist in binary pairs.
Hypercompact stellar systems result when a supermassive black hole is violently ejected from a galaxy, following a merger with another supermassive black hole. The evicted black hole rips stars from the galaxy as it is thrown out. The stars closest to the black hole move in tandem with the massive object and become a permanent record of the velocity at which the kick occurred.
An analogy of nucleus absorbing electron -proton forming neutron and ejecting electron could be derived out of Neil Bohr dynamics
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Bessel beams out of blackhole forming an attractor and repulsive nature
Citation:The semi blackhole condensate thus acts as a repulsive bump in the centre of the fermionic cloud pushing the fermion cloud out of the centre of the trap and boson cloud acting as an attractor according to laser populated fermion or boson domination. Out of Fashback resonance

Blessing in disguise quoting of Sir Arthur Eddington
The star has to go on radiating and radiating and contracting and contracting until, I suppose, it gets down to a few km radius, when gravity becomes strong enough to hold in the radiation, and the star can at last find peace. … I think there should be a law of Nature to prevent a star from behaving in this absurd way Chandra's discovery might well have transformed and accelerated developments in both physics and astrophysics in the 1930s. Instead, Eddington's heavy-handed intervention lent weighty support to the conservative community astrophysicists, who steadfastly refused even to consider the idea that stars might collapse to nothing. As a result, Chandra's work was almost forgotten.!
Pure bosonic superfluid in an optical attice. b. Shift of the effective potential depth due to fermionic impurities. c. Localization y interfering paths of the bosonic wavefunction scattered by randomly distributed ermionic impurities. d. Localization due to percolation. A random fermion distribution ampers the establishment of a coherent connection and causes the localization of bosonic nsembles in superfluid “islands”. e. Mott insulator transition induced by a uniform is tribution of attractive fermionic impurities, resulting in an effectively deeper lattice potential for the bosons. pace like initial temperatures, interactions and harmonius
we study tuning of interactions by a measurement of the mean-field energy of the Bose Einstein condensate as a function of magnetic field in the vicinity of a Feshbach resonance. Due to the heteronuclear interaction the ose-Einstein condensate is confined in the combined potential of the external dipole rap and the heteronuclear mean-field potential. The latter becomes stronger as the heteronuclear interaction increases. Hence, the effective confinement of the Bose- Einstein condensate which determines its mean-field energy is changed. A measurement f this interaction-dependent mean-field energy is performed by a sudden witch off of all confining potentials including the additional mean-field potential and n observation of the time-of-flight expansion of the condensate. A sudden switch off f the mean-field potential is realized in a good approximation by suddenly switching ff the Feshbach field, reducing the heteronuclear scattering length to its background alue. A related study has been done in the very first demonstration of tuning of omonuclear interactions in a Bose-Einstein condensate of 23Na [11] in the vicinity f a Feshbach resonance
In a second experiment, we study the influence of the heteronuclear interaction on e study the influence of the heteronuclear interaction on the ime-of-flight expansion of the Bose-Einstein condensate and the Fermi gas. When he heteronuclear interaction is left on during time-of-flight, the expansion of the two clouds is either slowed down due to attractive interaction or influenced by repulsive interactions. The study is performed by a sudden switch off of the external dipole rapping potential while the Feshbach field is left on during time of flight.
The condensate thus acts as a repulsive bump in the centre of the fermionic cloud pushing the fermion cloud out of the centre of the trap and boson cloud acting as an attractor according to laser populated fermion or boson domination. Out of Fashback resonance

[Feedback] Nobel prize for pulsar mass transfer dynamics-reg
Citation:Sharing of mass in between the companion is preventing the Magnetar in be coming a Blackhole in a binary system forming Pulsar planets as mass balancing synchronising system for Formation and Evolution of Neutron stars and deviations as rotational and irrotational dynamics based on actual spin ais deviation with pole axis as mass transfer switch
Formation and Evolution of Neutron stars and deviations as rotational and irrotational dynamics – 00083031 support: ISSUE=7501 PROJ=13
Any binary system is not alone producing gravity waves but sometimes share there mass by the frequency of mass synchronization. Since the first binary pulsar was detected in 1974, theoretical astrophysicists have investigated mass transfer between stars and other binary interactions in order to explain their origin.
Magnetars are the bizarre super-dense remnants of supernova explosions. They are the strongest magnets known in the Universe -- millions of times more powerful than the strongest magnets on Earth. A team of European astronomers using ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) now believe they've found the partner star of a magnetar for the first time. This discovery helps to explain how magnetars form -- a conundrum dating back 35 years -- and why this particular star didn't collapse into a black hole as astronomers would expect.
When a massive star collapses under its own gravity during a supernova explosion it forms either a neutron star or black hole. Magnetars are an unusual and very exotic form of neutron star. Like all of these strange objects they are tiny and extraordinarily dense -- a teaspoon of neutron star material would have a mass of about a billion tonnes -- but they also have extremely powerful magnetic fields. Magnetar surfaces release vast quantities of gamma rays when they undergo a sudden adjustment known as a starquake as a result of the huge stresses in their crusts.
The Westerlund 1 star cluster [1], located 16,000 light-years away in the southern constellation of Ara (the Altar), hosts one of the two dozen magnetars known in the Milky Way. It is called CXOU J164710.2-455216 and it has greatly puzzled astronomers.
"In our earlier work we showed that the magnetar in the cluster Westerlund 1 must have been born in the explosive death of a star about 40 times as massive as the Sun. But this presents its own problem, since stars this massive are expected to collapse to form black holes after their deaths, not neutron stars. We did not understand how it could have become a magnetar," says Simon Clark, lead author of the paper reporting these results.
Astronomers proposed a solution to this mystery. They suggested that the magnetar formed through the interactions of two very massive stars orbiting one another in a binary system so compact that it would fit within the orbit of the Earth around the Sun. But, up to now, no companion star was detected at the location of the magnetar in Westerlund 1, so astronomers used the VLT to search for it in other parts of the cluster. They hunted for runaway stars -- objects escaping the cluster at high velocities -- that might have been kicked out of orbit by the supernova explosion that formed the magnetar. One star, known as Westerlund 1-5 [2], was found to be doing just that.
"Not only does this star have the high velocity expected if it is recoiling from a supernova explosion, but the combination of its low mass, high luminosity and carbon-rich composition appear impossible to replicate in a single star -- a smoking gun that shows it must have originally formed with a binary companion," adds Ben Ritchie (Open University), a co-author on the new paper.
This discovery allowed the astronomers to reconstruct the stellar life story that permitted the magnetar to form, in place of the expected black hole [3]. In the first stage of this process, the more massive star of the pair begins to run out of fuel, transferring its outer layers to its less massive companion -- which is destined to become the magnetar -- causing it to rotate more and more quickly. This rapid rotation appears to be the essential ingredient in the formation of the magnetar's ultra-strong magnetic field.
In the second stage, as a result of this mass transfer, the companion itself becomes so massive that it in turn sheds a large amount of its recently gained mass. Much of this mass is lost but some is passed back to the original star that we still see shining today as Westerlund 1-5.
"It is this process of swapping material that has imparted the unique chemical signature to Westerlund 1-5 and allowed the mass of its companion to shrink to low enough levels that a magnetar was born instead of a black hole -- a game of stellar pass-the-parcel with cosmic consequences!" concludes team member Francisco Najarro (Centro de Astrobiología, Spain).
It seems that being a component of a double star may therefore be an essential ingredient in the recipe for forming a magnetar. The rapid rotation created by mass transfer between the two stars appears necessary to generate the ultra-strong magnetic field and then a second mass transfer phase allows the magnetar-to-be to slim down sufficiently so that it does not collapse into a black hole at the moment of its death.
The open cluster Westerlund 1 was discovered in 1961 from Australia by Swedish astronomer Bengt Westerlund, who later moved from there to become ESO Director in Chile (1970-74). This cluster is behind a huge interstellar cloud of gas and dust, which blocks most of its visible light. The dimming factor is more than 100,000, and this is why it has taken so long to uncover the true nature of this particular cluster.
Westerlund 1 is a unique natural laboratory for the study of extreme stellar physics, helping astronomers to find out how the most massive stars in the Milky Way live and die. From their observations, the astronomers conclude that this extreme cluster most probably contains no less than 100,000 times the mass of the Sun, and all of its stars are located within a region less than 6 light-years across. Westerlund 1 thus appears to be the most massive compact young cluster yet identified in the Milky Way galaxy.
All the stars so far analysed in Westerlund 1 have masses at least 30-40 times that of the Sun. Because such stars have a rather short life -- astronomically speaking -- Westerlund 1 must be very young. The astronomers determine an age somewhere between 3.5 and 5 million years. So, Westerlund 1 is clearly a newborn cluster in our galaxy.
[2] The full designation for this star is Cl* Westerlund 1 W 5.
[3] As stars age, their nuclear reactions change their chemical make-up -- elements that fuel the reactions are depleted and the products ofthe reactions accumulate. This stellar chemical fingerprint is first rich in hydrogen and nitrogen but poor in carbon and it is only very late in the lives of stars that carbon increases, by which point hydrogen and nitrogen will be severely reduced -- it is thought to be impossible for single stars to be simultaneously rich in hydrogen, nitrogen and carbon, as Westerlund 1-5 is.
Mass transfer dynamics among the pulsar for constant mass stability for formation of planetary system
And after 37 years, the remaining questions haven’t lost any luster. Why do nearly all pulsars contain about 1.35 times the mass of our sun? How do some supernovas expel pulsars into space at more than 1000 kilometers per second? What controls whether pulsars are born as “magnetars,” with ultrastrong magnetic fields (see p.534)? Stay tuned; more pulsar programming is heading your way. After a relatively short period of disbelief, the average reaction was that the existence of planets around a neutron star must mean that the planet-production process in general was a robust one,” With a rotational mass transfer irrotational ejection of mass is possible for a coleascence.This requires rotational and irrotational mass transfer dynamics The magnitude of this torque and the rate of spin-up depend drastically on the strength of the magnetic field. Therefore, the spin evolution of the neutron star may reflect to some extent the magnetic evolution history during the accretion phase. With regards to the stability of the mass accretion, it is generally accepted that matter flowing through the disc would flow steadily through the magnetosphere and accrete onto the neutron star surface provided that the magneto- sphere is rotating less rapidly than the disc at the magnetospheric boundary. If the magnetosphere rotates more rapidly than the accretion disc, on the other hand, it is possible that accretion would be practically inhibited. It hasalready been suggested by Illarionov & Sunyaev (1975) that matter would be prohibited from accreting by the centrifugal barrier which forms when the magnetosphere rotates more rapidly than the accreting matter. They suggested that the magnetosphere would act like a propeller and fling material out of the system (see also Mineshige, Rees &Fabian 1991).
Sankaravelayudhan Nandakumar
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