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A Rare Trinity of Quasars Discovered



           Pks0637-752 (1)


For only the second time in history, a team of scientists have discovered an extremely rare triple quasar system. Quasars are extremely bright and powerful sources of energy that sit in the center of a galaxy, surrounding a black hole. In systems with multiple quasars, the bodies are held together by gravity and are believed to be the product of galaxies colliding.

Astronomers find it very difficult to observe triplet quasar systems, because of observational limits that prevent researchers from differentiating multiple nearby bodies from one another at astronomical distances. Moreover, such phenomena are presumed to be very rare. By combining multiple telescope observations and advanced modeling, the team—led by Emanuele Farina of the University of Insubria in Como Italy—was able to find the triplet quasar, called QQQ J1519+0627.

The light from the quasars has traveled 9 billion light years to reach us, which means the light was emitted when the universe was only a third of its current age. Advanced analysis confirmed that what the team found was indeed three distinct sources of quasar energy and that the phenomenon is extremely rare. Two members of the triplet are closer to each other than the third. This means that the system could have been formed by interaction between the two adjacent quasars, but was probably not triggered by interaction with the more-distant third quasar.

Furthermore, no evidence was seen of any ultra-luminous infrared galaxies, which is where quasars are commonly found. As a result, the team proposes that this triplet quasar system is part of some larger structure that is still undergoing formation.

"Honing our observational and modeling skills and finding this rare stellar phenomenon will help us understand how cosmic structures assemble in our universe and the basic processes by which massive galaxies form," said Carnegie's Michele Fumagalli."Further study will help us figure out exactly how these quasars came to be and how rare their formation is," Farina added.




For more information: The new work appears in "Caught in the Act: Discovery of a Physical Quasar Triplet", E. P. Farina, C. Montuori, R. Decarli and M. Fumagalli, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, in press. A preprint of the paper can be downloaded from Journal reference: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.

The x-ray image at the top of the page shows a typical Quasar, PKS 0637-752, one of the most powerful, continually emitting objects in the universe. Powered by the accretion of matter onto a central, supermassive black hole, in every band these objects far outshine the giant elliptical galaxies that host them. Their activity takes many forms, including a hot accretion disk and corona, a cooler, surrounding torus, and emission line regions. About 10% of quasars exhibit powerful jets (an example is shown in the figure at bottom left), which are launched from the central engine at nearly the speed of light and propagate out for hundreds of kiloparsecs, well outside the host galaxy and out into the surrounding cluster that the galaxy resides in.

The Daily galaxy via Carnegie Institution for Science


Most likely nothing remains of this phenomenon except a big huge empty void.

Well, here is an example of science espousing differing aspects: Microquasar foumd beyond our Milky Way --v small bh (quasar) orbiting sun-like star. Quote: "This is, we think, the same mechanism at work in quasars at the cores of galaxies, where the bh are millions of times more massive."
It appears that science is saying that quasars are grown-up accretion jets born from proto-stars. That begs the question of what and how exactly is the make-up of these accretion disc jets? Gas not used by the star? That has been the answer for several years now. I suspect it is a special gas- dirty gas-- gas with heavy metals and the star only builds on pure gas.
But if gravity rules the star formation, what then would rule the jet/quasar formation? EM field of extreme magnetism. Would explain Halton Arp's position that the quasars is non-gravatational as it travels on the axis outward.

Study of Double, Triple, and Quadruple Quasar formations.
Interloping Nuclear Black Holes or Siblings?
This study discerns the difference between nuclear black holes/quasars found at the center of galaxies and those same type of objects that probably never dominated or commanded the presence of a typical galaxy of stars. These free roaming quasars (black holes) may occur singly or in groups. Note that these quasars may be attended by a few disorderly arranged stars.
When two or more associated quasars were first discovered conventional wisdom claimed these were illusions generated by gravitational lensing. In some circumstances this is true. Then it was realized that in other cases properties of the systems indicated otherwise. Eventual conclusion was that multiple quasars can and do exist within a limited area. Two, three, and four quasars can reside in spaces that range in area from smaller than the Milky Way galaxy to sometimes a little larger. This association is quite close for nuclear black holes and quasars.
We should note that quasars are black holes; black holes that are activated or agitated by stupendous inflows of matter causing them to convert, and dispatch or redirect, that excess as energetic jets. We can expect the existence of many more undetected quieter and less showy jet-less arrangements of black holes.
According to accepted cosmology most or all nuclei of galaxies at some time exhibited as quasars with jets (AGNs). When the overwhelming accretion of matter to the black hole slowed or ceased the black hole nucleus withdrew its jets. Prevailing theory explains the presence of these multiple quasars in an intimate setting as the result of two or more galaxies that have collided and/or merged. That is, when one galaxy comes together and unifies with another, their nuclear black holes form a close association and may even merge. A triple or quadruple association indicates a merger of three or four previously individual galaxies. When these formally dark nuclear black holes light up as quasars it is because of the presence and pressure of so much additional matter in the area.
That, is the official scientific or accepted view of why and how multiple quasars are found in close approximation to each other. Presented here is an alternate (unacceptable to scientists) interpretation and assessment of that rare arrangement –

Review: Described in detail earlier in this narrative were those early universe filaments of condensing energy. Twisting and lashing about, these strands segmented into units of all sizes and masses. After some further processing these became, called here, Omega bodies. The future for these uncountable number of objects varied considerably. The history of the Omega body that arrived in our area to spawn our local family of galaxies out to about 20 million light years is described in detail in the book.
Should be emphasized that observations so far indicate that each Omega body experienced a unique development. E.g., the one with which we are intimately connected was spinning rapidly and due to this high angular momentum, shed from its circumference, explosively, great numbers of masses of all weights. The earliest heavy ‘particles’ having the greater momentum traveled the farthest before settling down, developing eventually into the galaxies M83 and NGC 253, among others. The final cleavage of that Omega body rendered the nuclei for the future Milky Way and Andromeda galaxies. It was the manner of discharge mostly from the Omega body’s equatorial zone that arranged the soon to develop galaxies in a planar pattern.
A chart of local galaxiey by Dr. McCall illustrates it nicely.
(Dr. McCall absolutely does not agree with the scenario described here.)
[You can find the original work by Marshall McCall and his explanation for this particular arrangement of galaxies at .]
[To find more papers and articles addressing this subject look-up dwarf and satellite galaxies of the MW and/or M31.]

It might be expected that the planar arrangement for families of galaxies might be ubiquitous in the universe. Thus far this study has not found another specimen of a group of related galaxies assembled along a plane.

For another pattern of Omega disintegration see next -
Abell 399, 401 gal. clusters, gas.
Credit Sunyaev Zel’dovich effect, ESA Planck Collaboration, optical image, STScI Digitized Sky Survey

In this case the very massive Omega body split into two nearly equal parts that quickly put some distance between themselves.

As they sped apart, while disintegrating, each seeded their trail with thousands of galaxies. It is the destiny of these two lobes to eventually reunite into one gargantuan conglomeration.

Double Quasars - “If most galaxies host a central massive black hole (MBH), as implied by the local observations, and nuclear activity is triggered in mergers, double/binary quasars should also be common in a hierarchically evolving Universe.” Foreman, G.; Volonteri, M.; Dotti, M. et al.
A true, but incomplete, description of the present universe.

Triple Quasars or Ménage à Trois - It must to have been difficult for some scientists to accept the existence of triple quasars, even after the discovery of triple galaxy encounters.
Examples: LBQS 1429-008, triple quasars. (Paul Hewett, Frederic Rasio of Northwestern University). (QQ 1429−008, QQ 1432−0106, QQQ J1432−0106) is a physical triple quasar. It was the first physical triple discovered. The second discovery was by Carnegie's Michele Fumagalli, et al. Their work is published by Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. E. P. Farina, C. Montuori, R. Decarli, M. Fumagalli

“The velocity differences among the three objects (as measured through the broad MgII emission line) are less than 1000 km/s, suggesting that the quasars belong to the same physical structure.” Fumagalli.
This indicates a common origin.

"The punchline is that these interactions are quite common," says Frederic Rasio, a theoretician at Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois.
Indeed they are common, but not accurately identified.

It is claimed here that these objects did not convene at this locale from distant places, but instead have always been this closely associated.

Quadruple Quasars - "If you discover something which, according to current scientific wisdom, should be extremely improbable, you can come to one of two conclusions: either you just got very lucky, or you need to modify your theory," explained Joseph Hennawi.

The majority of scientists would say you just got very lucky. Hardly anyone is willing to modify their theory.

See Quasar quartet. SDSS J0841+3921.
Credit Hennawi, Arrigoni-Battaia, MPIA

Note the apparent alignment of the objects.

Proposed Hypothesis: The Omega hypothesis of universe formation affirms that galaxies, stars, must have in addition to favorable conditions a nucleating presence, usually a gravitating body. (A contradiction of the Lambda Cold Dark Matter concept of star and galaxy formation.) In most cases that essential element was a fragment of a cooling, condensing/converting, shrinking, high velocity section of an early universe filament of energy/mass. Pieces of all mass sizes of the decomposing, condensing filament were flung for various distances. These objects, now called Omega bodies, gathered during their flight dark matter, plus the newly formed ‘real matter’ in amounts according to the Omega body’s gravitation, its velocity, and the duration of its travel. That is, every mass in motion through the plasma of space attracts and retains an amount of dark matter and real matter commensurate with its gravity, and velocity, and length of travel whether it is an asteroid or a speeding black hole.
This is an example of the bubble of matter surrounding the runaway star
See Kappa Cassiopeiae, HD 2905, star bow shock wave, Credit NASA, JPL, Caltech

As relates to Omega bodies, the volume of collected matter can measure thousands of light years across. Perhaps millions. Additionally, the density and pressure of that matter upon the environment of the black hole, in this case the quasar, can impel the object to convert and dispel that excess it cannot accommodate - as jets of energy.
In the particular case of the quasar quartet SDSS J0841+3921, because of the huge, huge cache of matter held in common and continuing to be assembled by the four, and the linear arrangement of the quasars, with no defined galactic arrangement of stars, this quartet is held to be four segments of an early universe filament that failed to completely separate and go their own ways. Very likely there are more unseen black holes in formation with this pattern.
In some cases of triple quasars, though the circumstances must be carefully scrutinized, a similar morphology is indicated. k

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