New Quantum Insights into Life and Death of Black Holes --Confirms Einstein & Hawking
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March 07, 2013

New Quantum Insights into Life and Death of Black Holes --Confirms Einstein & Hawking





Their findings dispel the so-called firewall paradox which shocked the physics community when it was announced in 2012 since its predictions about large black holes contradicted Einstein's crowning achievement – the theory of general relativity. Those results suggested that anyone falling into a black hole would be burned up as they crossed its edge – the so-called event horizon.

Now Sam Braunstein and Stefano Pirandola have extinguished the fire. In a paper published in Physical Review Letters, they invoke quantum information theory, a modern branch of quantum mechanics that treats light and atoms as carriers of information. The key insight from quantum mechanics is the existence of `spooky' quantum entanglement across a black hole's event horizon.

"Quantum mechanics shows that entanglement can exist across the event horizon, between particles inside and outside the black hole," says Braunstein. "But should this entanglement ever vanish, a barrier of energetic particles would be created: an energetic curtain (or firewall) would descend around the horizon of the black hole. We are the first to show the necessity of entanglement across all black hole event horizons and to consider what happens as black holes age. The greater the entanglement, the later the curtain descends. But if the entanglement is maximal, the firewall never occurs. Indeed, entanglement has long been believed to exist for some types of black holes, taking on exactly this maximum value. Our work confirms and generalizes this claim."

Stephen Hawking was the first to consider information flow in black holes, arguing that aging black holes must hoard information about everything they swallow.

"When quantum mechanics, and in particular entanglement, are included in the story, Hawking's prediction holds for the longest time possible," Braustein added. "Our results not only back up Einstein's theory of gravity, but also point to quantum information theory as a powerful tool for disentangling the deep mysteries of the Universe."

The image at the top of the page shows combined observations from multiple telescopes of Henize 2-10, a dwarf starburst galaxy located about 30 million light years from Earth, has provided astronomers with a detailed new look at how galaxy and black hole formation may have occured in the early Universe. This image shows optical data from the Hubble Space Telescope in red, green and blue, X-ray data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory in purple, and radio data from the National Radio Astronomy Observatory's Very Large Array in yellow.

A compact X-ray source at the center of the galaxy coincides with a radio source, giving evidence for an actively growing supermassive black hole with a mass of about one million times that of the sun.

The Daily Galaxy via University of York


Retraction The intensity that varies across a laser beam can be used to push objects sideways, a mechanism where light movement can be controlled using two opposing light beams could be used to vary the invisible cloaking by varying the positive refractive index towards negative which will be a feedback system which acts as genetic hologram mirror says Sankaravelayudhan Nandakumar which become a possible Astrogenetic applications, a mechanism where light movement can be controlled using two opposing light beams — though technically, this differs from the idea behind a tractor beam. now studied the properties of lasers with a particular type of distribution of light intensity across the beam, or so-called Bessel beams forming slippery quantum mechanical entanglement and of “decoherence”, in which the quantum nature of a particle slowly slips away through its interactions with other matter. Based on pioneering work by Albert Einstein and Max Planck more than a hundred years ago, it is known that light carries momentum that pushes objects away. In addition, the intensity that varies across a laser beam can be used to push objects sideways, and for example can be used to move cells in biotechnology applications.

specific researching interests due to their relatively simplifying design. However, unidirectional invisibility systems worked generally in just one certain illumination direction. Here, based on time-reversal principle, we present the design and fabrication of a kind of all-dielectric device that could directionally cancel objects and create illusions as the illuminating light was from different directions. Our devices were experimentally realized through holographic technology and could work for macroscopic objects with any reasonable size at visible wavelengths, and hence may take directional invisibility technology a big step towards interesting applications ranging from magic camouflaging, directional detection to super-resolution biomedical imagin
A typical Astrogenetic application is formation of Rahu and Kethu by lunar wave solar wave opposition to eject pie phased ejections.
Both are affected by the Moon! Like tides in the ocean, the ground is also subject to lunar attraction. When the Moon is full, the Earth's crust actually rises about 25 cm (9.8 in). This movement causes the circumference of the LHC to vary by (a whopping) 1 mm (out of 27 km, a factor of 0.000004%) ) but that's enough so that physicists need to take it into account.
If the Higgs Boson is found, it means that we have discovered a particle that is the building block for pretty much everything in existence. There would still be questions as to where that particle came from, though, and I think that some religious types might claim that God created the particle and thus DID guide the universe into creation.
That the rest mass parameter of fermions inside the standard model is allowed to be nonzero due to the Higgs field breaking the electroweak symmetry (or perhaps even somehow effectively modeled by a Higgs field interaction) tells us nothing about the nature of mass. Mass is inertia against acceleration, the fundamental nature of which is still unknown and the amount of which is overwhelmingly due to Einstein's E = m c2 applied to binding energies that have nothing to do with the Higgs mechanism.
he faster than light neutrinos came with six sigma (!), and nobody in their right mind believed it, precisely as everybody in their right mind knows for more than half a year already that the Higgs boson is for real. So why the hype now?
Particle physics and cosmology is not for everyone; we may lament the fact that some people are more interested in the inanities of the world of celebrity than in attempts to unravel the mystery of the universe, but it is not clear that this should cause us moral concern. However, one opinion that is frequently voiced in comments on reports of the discovery is that the whole endeavour to find the Higgs-Boson has been an outrageous waste of money. Such critics point out that during a time of global recession, it is morally irresponsible to spend vast amounts of money (something in the vicinity of £2.6 billion) on a purely theoretical experiment which is not designed to tackle any significant social problem or health concern.
The first point to make is that although scientific discoveries often lead to useful practical applications, these practical applications are not only often not the goal of the experiments which led to the discovery, but they are also not even foreseeable consequences. Of course, some of the scientists who have made world changing discoveries may have been attending to particular practical problems. For instance, even though Fleming discovered penicillin by accident, this accidental discovery occurred as part of his research to find a chemical that could stop bacterial infection, research that was motivated by his first hand experience of the devastating effects of such infection in WW1. However, as Nick Dusic, director of the Campaign for Science and Engineering, claims “Most researchers won’t know what the societal or economic benefit [of their research] will be until after [the research] has been done, and there could be unforeseeable benefits that weren’t anticipated when the research project started.”
As such, it seems plausible to claim that many scientists are not motivated by a particular practical problem like Fleming; instead, it seems that they are driven by to conduct their experiments out of a spirit of scientific curiosity. However, although these experiments may not have been motivated by practical considerations, they may yet lead to practical applications which the researcher did not even dream of. Perhaps more importantly, it is the spirit of scientific curiosity which engenders creativity in science, and which will lead to the sort of revolutionary technologies that could potentially eradicate the social problems or health concerns that the critics of CERN highlight. The important point is that the fact that certain theoretical experiments are not carried out in the hope of providing some foreseeable practical benefit does not entail that no such benefit shall arise; we cannot tell what practical applications that the results at CERN may one day lead to.
This sort of thought can be extended to other fields, including the one to which many of the contributors and subscribers of this blog belong to, namely philosophy. Philosophy and many other humanities subjects can seldom be said to have direct practical benefits in the same way that the natural sciences can have. In the economised societies that we live in, this leads many to attack these disciplines as worthless. How can knowledge or enquiry be a good if it will not lead to cures for cancer, more stable economies, or solutions to climate change? In reply, we might first point out the goals that the objector points out here are not intrinsic goods in themselves, but instrumental; we would value a cure for cancer not as an end in itself, but rather because it would be a means to alleviating suffering, and prolong lives that we believe to be valuable. Accordingly, the successful accomplishment of these goals would be valuable in so far as they are a means to human well-being, which may plausibly be deemed intrinsically valuable. Now the knowledge attained in academic enquiries may be deemed as instrumental to well being on certain objectivist theories. However, it might also be plausible to claim that knowledge is just a different sort of intrinsic good from well being. Furthermore, to return to the natural sciences, it seems that it is this belief in the intrinsic value of knowledge that spurs the spirit of scientific curiosity, which, I suggested above, engenders the creativity in science, which is most fecund to the practical benefits that we often demand of it.
Invisibility cloak' hides objects without using metamaterials CALCITE BASED Color ful support: ISSUE=6486 PROJ=13

The LHS AND RHS optic applications in calcite crystals
The quest to build a working “invisibility cloak” generally focuses on the use of metamaterials – artificially engineered materials with a negative refractive index that have already been used to render microscopic objects invisible in specific wavelengths of light. Now, using naturally occurring crystals rather than metamaterials, two research teams working independently have demonstrated technology that can cloak larger objects in the broad range of wavelengths visible to the human eye.
This transparent mineral boasts an optical property known as birefringence, or double-refraction. This means that when light enters the calcite, it splits into two rays of different polarizations traveling at different speeds and in different directions. This causes objects viewed through a clear piece of calcite to appear doubled.
To create their invisibility cloak, the University of Birmingham team glued two pieces of calcite with differing optical paths together and placed them on a mirror and performed demonstrations in both air and a container of liquid
Calcite fluoresces pink under long wave ultraviolet light. Calcite fluoresces blue under short wave ultraviolet light.
Sankaravelayudhan Nandakumar

Bessel beams out of Quasi blackhole forming an attractor and repulsive nature
Citation:The semi blackhole condensate thus acts as a repulsive bump in the centre of the fermionic cloud pushing the fermion cloud out of the centre of the trap and boson cloud acting as an attractor according to laser populated fermion or boson domination. Out of Fashback resonance
Blessing in disguise quoting of Sir Arthur Eddington
The star has to go on radiating and radiating and contracting and contracting until, I suppose, it gets down to a few km radius, when gravity becomes strong enough to hold in the radiation, and the star can at last find peace. … I think there should be a law of Nature to prevent a star from behaving in this absurd way Chandra's discovery might well have transformed and accelerated developments in both physics and astrophysics in the 1930s. Instead, Eddington's heavy-handed intervention lent weighty support to the conservative community astrophysicists, who steadfastly refused even to consider the idea that stars might collapse to nothing. As a result, Chandra's work was almost forgotten.! Even this was not correct but they become aggressiveby emitting twisters star disintegrating rogues before they collapse and disappear into space
Pure bosonic superfluid in an optical attice. b. Shift of the effective potential depth due to fermionic impurities. c. Localization y interfering paths of the bosonic wavefunction scattered by randomly distributed ermionic impurities. d. Localization due to percolation. A random fermion distribution ampers the establishment of a coherent connection and causes the localization of bosonic nsembles in superfluid “islands”. e. Mott insulator transition induced by a uniform is tribution of attractive fermionic impurities, resulting in an effectively deeper lattice potential for the bosons. pace like initial temperatures, interactions and harmonius
we study tuning of interactions by a measurement of the mean-field energy of the Bose Einstein condensate as a function of magnetic field in the vicinity of a Feshbach resonance. Due to the heteronuclear interaction the ose-Einstein condensate is confined in the combined potential of the external dipole rap and the heteronuclear mean-field potential. The latter becomes stronger as the heteronuclear interaction increases. Hence, the effective confinement of the Bose- Einstein condensate which determines its mean-field energy is changed. A measurement f this interaction-dependent mean-field energy is performed by a sudden witch off of all confining potentials including the additional mean-field potential and n observation of the time-of-flight expansion of the condensate. A sudden switch off f the mean-field potential is realized in a good approximation by suddenly switching ff the Feshbach field, reducing the heteronuclear scattering length to its background alue. A related study has been done in the very first demonstration of tuning of omonuclear interactions in a Bose-Einstein condensate of 23Na [11] in the vicinity f a Feshbach resonance
In a second experiment, we study the influence of the heteronuclear interaction on e study the influence of the heteronuclear interaction on the ime-of-flight expansion of the Bose-Einstein condensate and the Fermi gas. When he heteronuclear interaction is left on during time-of-flight, the expansion of the two clouds is either slowed down due to attractive interaction or influenced by repulsive interactions. The study is performed by a sudden switch off of the external dipole rapping potential while the Feshbach field is left on during time of flight.
The condensate thus acts as a repulsive bump in the centre of the fermionic cloud pushing the fermion cloud out of the centre of the trap and boson cloud acting as an attractor according to laser populated fermion or boson domination. Out of Fashback resonance support: ISSUE=6706 PROJ=13 [Incident: 140118-000022

Whenever rotating particle of a binary system reaches a shortest distance towards a force of attraction it emits Einstein electromagnetic waves confirming rotating of electron when moves from outer orbit to inner orbit emit Einstein gravity waves
There is no escape from a black hole in classical theory,” Hawking told Nature. Quantum theory, however, “enables energy and information to escape from a black hole”. A full explanation of the process, the physicist admits, would require a theory that successfully merges gravity with the other fundamental forces of nature. But that is a goal that has eluded physicists for nearly a century. “The correct treatment,” Hawking says, “remains a mystery.” Unlike the event horizon, the apparent horizon can eventually dissolve. Page notes that Hawking is opening the door to a scenario so extreme “that anything in principle can get out of a black hole”. Although Hawking does not specify in his paper exactly how an apparent horizon would disappear, Page speculates that when it has shrunk to a certain size, at which the effects of both quantum mechanics and gravity combine, it is plausible that it could vanish. At that point, whatever was once trapped within the black hole would be released (although not in good shape). What if each galaxy -at some point- was one gigantic star that collapsed and turned into a huge nebula that created all the other stars with a black hole it's centre. A white dwarf has an extreme gravitational force that if stretched on a galactical level would be hard to measure it's power therefore hard to understand on our recent theories. The matter that is stuck in the centre of a black hole could be of a higher temperature and density of a white dwarf that light is trapped in it's gravitational field. Matter itself could be crushed into molecules of the same type that was on the creation of the universe.
And after 37 years, the remaining questions haven’t lost any luster. Why do nearly all pulsars contain about 1.35 times the mass of our sun? How do some supernovas expel pulsars into space at more than 1000 kilometers per second? What controls whether pulsars are born as “magnetars,” with ultrastrong magnetic fields (see p. 534)? Stay tuned; more pulsar programming is heading your way.
Forecasting for Black Holes,” Hawking proposes that black holes are instead enveloped by an apparent horizon. Basically, instead of an event horizon that blocks everything absolutely, an apparent horizon suspends matter and energy from trying to escape — and when it does escape, due to the wild fluctuations within a black hole and its apparent horizon, the energy would be released in a garbled form. Hawking likens these fluctuations to weather on Earth: “It will be like weather forecasting on Earth. That is unitary, but chaotic, so there is e
ffective information loss. One can’t predict the weather more than a few days in advance.” (Unitarity is the part of quantum theory that strongly disapproves of event horizons being a point of no return.)
The research paper concludes: “The absence of event horizons mean that there are no black holes — in the sense of regimes from which light can’t escape to infi
nity. There are however apparent horizons which persist for a period of time.” (Read: NASA’s Swift discovers 100,000 super-massive black holes, in its spare time.)
It’s worth noting that Hawking’s new paper is just two pages long, contains no calculations, and hasn’t yet passed peer review. It does seem to do what it set out to achieve, though. Complex problems don’t necessarily have complex solutions. Speaking to Nature, Hawking had a little more to say about the matter, too: “There is no escape from a black hole in classical theory,” Hawking said. “[Quantum theory, however] enables energy and information to escape from a black hole.” To fully explain the process, though, the theoretical physicist admits that we’re still looking for a theory that ties up gravity with the other universal constants — a theory that, Hawking says, “remains a mystery.”
Einstein’s theory of general relativity first conceived a black hole as an object with a gravitational pull so powerful that anything — gas, dust, stars, planets, whole galaxies, even light — that crossed the event horizon would fall in and be forever trapped and ultimately crushed, never to escape.
But with the emergence of quantum mechanics in the mid-20th century, many believed that this information — the particles and matter sucked into the black hole — had to be conserved, somewhere. According to quantum mechanics, a black hole could shred a book into its subatomic particles, but as long as all the pieces still existed, it was possible to reconstruct that book, Polchinski explained.
Then Hawking published a paper on black holes in the 1970s, and everything changed. He proposed that in fact, black holes were losing mass and would eventually evaporate. If they evaporated, they would take all traces of what fell into them with it. The information would not, in fact, be conserved. It would vanish.
Suddenly, science didn’t make sense. The field of physics was faced with a giant dilemma. This question of what ultimately happens to all the stuff drawn into the black hole has become known as “the information paradox.”
This is a paradox that hasn’t been completely resolved,” said Juan Maldacena at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, N.J. “There are various ideas for how it could be resolved, but I think no one has convinced the other members of the community that his idea is correct.” That includes, he said, Hawking’s latest proposal, which reimagines the event horizon.
In a nutshell, Hawking seems to be saying this: instead of an event horizon, there is something else he calls an “apparent horizon.” In this apparent horizon, matter and energy is temporarily suspended, but then released. If this is true, it changes black holes as we know them.
“The absence of event horizons means that there are no black holes — in the sense of regimes from which light can’t escape to infinity,” Hawking wrote in his paper.
According to his proposal, black holes do trap information for a long time, but that information can, eventually, escape, Polchinski said. He added that Hawking’s proposal remains untested.
“The broader picture is right now that we really have this conflict between two theories, quantum mechanics and Einstein’s theory of gravity, both of which we have strong reason to believe are true. And yet when you combine them, they make this prediction of information loss that we believe is false,” Polchinski said.
Over the past 40 years, physicists have proposed multiple solutions, forcing the field to rethink black-hole behavior. In 1992, for example, Leonard Susskind, Larus Thorlacius and John Uglom proposed an idea known as “complementarity.”
Then there’s the complicated “firewall paradox.” In 2012, Polchinski and his colleagues found a problem with the event horizon. As particles enter the event horizon, they’re ripped apart. As these particles break down, their research showed, they release a burst of energy, creating a firewall around the center of the black hole. This has become known as “the firewall paradox.” This notion of the event horizon as a highly energetic region throws another wrench in Einstein’s theory, which said that nothing special should happen at the event horizon.
That’s where Hawking’s latest paper comes in, suggesting physicists need to rethink that event horizon. His latest proposal suggests that there is in fact no event horizon to burn up. Instead, the apparent horizon becomes the real boundary.
If you’re confused, you’re not alone, said Matt Strassler, blogger and visiting theoretical physicist at Harvard University. The entire theoretical physics community is still working on these problems, and this represents merely one proposal among dozens.
“There’s all sorts of cacophony in the field … The problem is no one can come up, so far, with something you can actually calculate. So it’s ideas and proposals and approximations and guesses,” he said.
Notably, Hawking’s work has not yet been peer-reviewed, and it contains no equations, so there’s no way to test his new ideas, Polchinski said. Because of that, he added, his statement about black holes can’t be considered a breakthrough in science — yet.
Hawking’s paper appeared online last week on an online server for research articles operated by Cornell University called arXiv.
How can any of these paradoxes around black holes be answered? For now, the mathematical formulas to test and solve these new hypotheses simply aren’t there, Strassler said, adding that these are conceptual problems, not just a math problems.
“These aren’t the kind of calculations you can just throw at a computer. Even to figure out what questions you need to ask isn’t obvious,” he said. “The calculations themselves involve very, very subtle effects that a computer would never be able to keep track of.”
The problems have everyone in the field confused, Polchinski said, but that confusion is thrilling for physicists. Solving a paradox is the way the field advances, he said.
“It’s not so much that there’s a mistake, but somehow, some assumption that we believe about quantum mechanics and gravity is wrong, and we’re trying to figure out what it is,” Polchinski said. “It’s confusion, but it’s confusion that we hope makes us ripe for advance.”
What is happening to the expenditure involved in Nobel prize awarded to scientists based on basic Blackhole theory even to Dr.Chandrasekher and Hussel to Pulsar findings.Applied mathematics is unreliable when basic physics theory is not proved
n modern science, the prevailing opinion supposes that whatever falls into a black hole disappears forever and breaks apart into the component parts. However, a new theory states that black holes do not destroy the matter but rather are a kind of exit gate which lead to other universes just like our own.
As described in other theories, as the matter approaches the core of the black hole, the gravitational field becomes more and more powerful, but it does not disappear into a spacetime singularity as the prevailing theory states. According to the study results of the two researchers, the matter does not disappear in the middle of the hole but continues its way up the other end and into another universe. Read More:
According to the new equations, the matter black holes absorb and seemingly destroy is actually expelled and becomes the building blocks for galaxies, stars, and planets in another reality. Essentially, every black hole contains a smaller alternate universe. And our universe might just exist inside a black hole of a galaxy in a much larger universe.
So the idea that black holes are portals to other worlds rather than a place of absolute destruction is not new. But they all stumbled on the spacetime singularity. This is the first time when this barrier is bypassed with the help of scientific tools. The results of the study were published in the journal Physical Review Letters. Read More:
Furthermore, a recent study published in the scientific journal Nature shows that our entire universe may have been born out of a black hole from another universe. In other words, the Big Bang was really just an extension of a black hole in a different universe.

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