New Quantum Insights into Life and Death of Black Holes --Confirms Einstein & Hawking
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March 07, 2013

New Quantum Insights into Life and Death of Black Holes --Confirms Einstein & Hawking

 

 

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Their findings dispel the so-called firewall paradox which shocked the physics community when it was announced in 2012 since its predictions about large black holes contradicted Einstein's crowning achievement – the theory of general relativity. Those results suggested that anyone falling into a black hole would be burned up as they crossed its edge – the so-called event horizon.

Now Sam Braunstein and Stefano Pirandola have extinguished the fire. In a paper published in Physical Review Letters, they invoke quantum information theory, a modern branch of quantum mechanics that treats light and atoms as carriers of information. The key insight from quantum mechanics is the existence of `spooky' quantum entanglement across a black hole's event horizon.

"Quantum mechanics shows that entanglement can exist across the event horizon, between particles inside and outside the black hole," says Braunstein. "But should this entanglement ever vanish, a barrier of energetic particles would be created: an energetic curtain (or firewall) would descend around the horizon of the black hole. We are the first to show the necessity of entanglement across all black hole event horizons and to consider what happens as black holes age. The greater the entanglement, the later the curtain descends. But if the entanglement is maximal, the firewall never occurs. Indeed, entanglement has long been believed to exist for some types of black holes, taking on exactly this maximum value. Our work confirms and generalizes this claim."

Stephen Hawking was the first to consider information flow in black holes, arguing that aging black holes must hoard information about everything they swallow.

"When quantum mechanics, and in particular entanglement, are included in the story, Hawking's prediction holds for the longest time possible," Braustein added. "Our results not only back up Einstein's theory of gravity, but also point to quantum information theory as a powerful tool for disentangling the deep mysteries of the Universe."

The image at the top of the page shows combined observations from multiple telescopes of Henize 2-10, a dwarf starburst galaxy located about 30 million light years from Earth, has provided astronomers with a detailed new look at how galaxy and black hole formation may have occured in the early Universe. This image shows optical data from the Hubble Space Telescope in red, green and blue, X-ray data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory in purple, and radio data from the National Radio Astronomy Observatory's Very Large Array in yellow.

A compact X-ray source at the center of the galaxy coincides with a radio source, giving evidence for an actively growing supermassive black hole with a mass of about one million times that of the sun.

The Daily Galaxy via University of York

Comments

Retraction The intensity that varies across a laser beam can be used to push objects sideways, a mechanism where light movement can be controlled using two opposing light beams could be used to vary the invisible cloaking by varying the positive refractive index towards negative which will be a feedback system which acts as genetic hologram mirror says Sankaravelayudhan Nandakumar which become a possible Astrogenetic applications, a mechanism where light movement can be controlled using two opposing light beams — though technically, this differs from the idea behind a tractor beam. now studied the properties of lasers with a particular type of distribution of light intensity across the beam, or so-called Bessel beams forming slippery quantum mechanical entanglement and of “decoherence”, in which the quantum nature of a particle slowly slips away through its interactions with other matter. Based on pioneering work by Albert Einstein and Max Planck more than a hundred years ago, it is known that light carries momentum that pushes objects away. In addition, the intensity that varies across a laser beam can be used to push objects sideways, and for example can be used to move cells in biotechnology applications.

specific researching interests due to their relatively simplifying design. However, unidirectional invisibility systems worked generally in just one certain illumination direction. Here, based on time-reversal principle, we present the design and fabrication of a kind of all-dielectric device that could directionally cancel objects and create illusions as the illuminating light was from different directions. Our devices were experimentally realized through holographic technology and could work for macroscopic objects with any reasonable size at visible wavelengths, and hence may take directional invisibility technology a big step towards interesting applications ranging from magic camouflaging, directional detection to super-resolution biomedical imagin
A typical Astrogenetic application is formation of Rahu and Kethu by lunar wave solar wave opposition to eject pie phased ejections.
Both are affected by the Moon! Like tides in the ocean, the ground is also subject to lunar attraction. When the Moon is full, the Earth's crust actually rises about 25 cm (9.8 in). This movement causes the circumference of the LHC to vary by (a whopping) 1 mm (out of 27 km, a factor of 0.000004%) ) but that's enough so that physicists need to take it into account.
If the Higgs Boson is found, it means that we have discovered a particle that is the building block for pretty much everything in existence. There would still be questions as to where that particle came from, though, and I think that some religious types might claim that God created the particle and thus DID guide the universe into creation.
That the rest mass parameter of fermions inside the standard model is allowed to be nonzero due to the Higgs field breaking the electroweak symmetry (or perhaps even somehow effectively modeled by a Higgs field interaction) tells us nothing about the nature of mass. Mass is inertia against acceleration, the fundamental nature of which is still unknown and the amount of which is overwhelmingly due to Einstein's E = m c2 applied to binding energies that have nothing to do with the Higgs mechanism.
he faster than light neutrinos came with six sigma (!), and nobody in their right mind believed it, precisely as everybody in their right mind knows for more than half a year already that the Higgs boson is for real. So why the hype now?
Particle physics and cosmology is not for everyone; we may lament the fact that some people are more interested in the inanities of the world of celebrity than in attempts to unravel the mystery of the universe, but it is not clear that this should cause us moral concern. However, one opinion that is frequently voiced in comments on reports of the discovery is that the whole endeavour to find the Higgs-Boson has been an outrageous waste of money. Such critics point out that during a time of global recession, it is morally irresponsible to spend vast amounts of money (something in the vicinity of £2.6 billion) on a purely theoretical experiment which is not designed to tackle any significant social problem or health concern.
The first point to make is that although scientific discoveries often lead to useful practical applications, these practical applications are not only often not the goal of the experiments which led to the discovery, but they are also not even foreseeable consequences. Of course, some of the scientists who have made world changing discoveries may have been attending to particular practical problems. For instance, even though Fleming discovered penicillin by accident, this accidental discovery occurred as part of his research to find a chemical that could stop bacterial infection, research that was motivated by his first hand experience of the devastating effects of such infection in WW1. However, as Nick Dusic, director of the Campaign for Science and Engineering, claims “Most researchers won’t know what the societal or economic benefit [of their research] will be until after [the research] has been done, and there could be unforeseeable benefits that weren’t anticipated when the research project started.”
As such, it seems plausible to claim that many scientists are not motivated by a particular practical problem like Fleming; instead, it seems that they are driven by to conduct their experiments out of a spirit of scientific curiosity. However, although these experiments may not have been motivated by practical considerations, they may yet lead to practical applications which the researcher did not even dream of. Perhaps more importantly, it is the spirit of scientific curiosity which engenders creativity in science, and which will lead to the sort of revolutionary technologies that could potentially eradicate the social problems or health concerns that the critics of CERN highlight. The important point is that the fact that certain theoretical experiments are not carried out in the hope of providing some foreseeable practical benefit does not entail that no such benefit shall arise; we cannot tell what practical applications that the results at CERN may one day lead to.
This sort of thought can be extended to other fields, including the one to which many of the contributors and subscribers of this blog belong to, namely philosophy. Philosophy and many other humanities subjects can seldom be said to have direct practical benefits in the same way that the natural sciences can have. In the economised societies that we live in, this leads many to attack these disciplines as worthless. How can knowledge or enquiry be a good if it will not lead to cures for cancer, more stable economies, or solutions to climate change? In reply, we might first point out the goals that the objector points out here are not intrinsic goods in themselves, but instrumental; we would value a cure for cancer not as an end in itself, but rather because it would be a means to alleviating suffering, and prolong lives that we believe to be valuable. Accordingly, the successful accomplishment of these goals would be valuable in so far as they are a means to human well-being, which may plausibly be deemed intrinsically valuable. Now the knowledge attained in academic enquiries may be deemed as instrumental to well being on certain objectivist theories. However, it might also be plausible to claim that knowledge is just a different sort of intrinsic good from well being. Furthermore, to return to the natural sciences, it seems that it is this belief in the intrinsic value of knowledge that spurs the spirit of scientific curiosity, which, I suggested above, engenders the creativity in science, which is most fecund to the practical benefits that we often demand of it.
Invisibility cloak' hides objects without using metamaterials CALCITE BASED Color ful HOLOGRAMShubblesite.org support: ISSUE=6486 PROJ=13

The LHS AND RHS optic applications in calcite crystals
The quest to build a working “invisibility cloak” generally focuses on the use of metamaterials – artificially engineered materials with a negative refractive index that have already been used to render microscopic objects invisible in specific wavelengths of light. Now, using naturally occurring crystals rather than metamaterials, two research teams working independently have demonstrated technology that can cloak larger objects in the broad range of wavelengths visible to the human eye.
This transparent mineral boasts an optical property known as birefringence, or double-refraction. This means that when light enters the calcite, it splits into two rays of different polarizations traveling at different speeds and in different directions. This causes objects viewed through a clear piece of calcite to appear doubled.
To create their invisibility cloak, the University of Birmingham team glued two pieces of calcite with differing optical paths together and placed them on a mirror and performed demonstrations in both air and a container of liquid
Calcite fluoresces pink under long wave ultraviolet light. Calcite fluoresces blue under short wave ultraviolet light.
Sankaravelayudhan Nandakumar

Bessel beams out of Quasi blackhole forming an attractor and repulsive nature
Citation:The semi blackhole condensate thus acts as a repulsive bump in the centre of the fermionic cloud pushing the fermion cloud out of the centre of the trap and boson cloud acting as an attractor according to laser populated fermion or boson domination. Out of Fashback resonance
Blessing in disguise quoting of Sir Arthur Eddington
The star has to go on radiating and radiating and contracting and contracting until, I suppose, it gets down to a few km radius, when gravity becomes strong enough to hold in the radiation, and the star can at last find peace. … I think there should be a law of Nature to prevent a star from behaving in this absurd way Chandra's discovery might well have transformed and accelerated developments in both physics and astrophysics in the 1930s. Instead, Eddington's heavy-handed intervention lent weighty support to the conservative community astrophysicists, who steadfastly refused even to consider the idea that stars might collapse to nothing. As a result, Chandra's work was almost forgotten.! Even this was not correct but they become aggressiveby emitting twisters star disintegrating rogues before they collapse and disappear into space
Pure bosonic superfluid in an optical attice. b. Shift of the effective potential depth due to fermionic impurities. c. Localization y interfering paths of the bosonic wavefunction scattered by randomly distributed ermionic impurities. d. Localization due to percolation. A random fermion distribution ampers the establishment of a coherent connection and causes the localization of bosonic nsembles in superfluid “islands”. e. Mott insulator transition induced by a uniform is tribution of attractive fermionic impurities, resulting in an effectively deeper lattice potential for the bosons. pace like initial temperatures, interactions and harmonius
we study tuning of interactions by a measurement of the mean-field energy of the Bose Einstein condensate as a function of magnetic field in the vicinity of a Feshbach resonance. Due to the heteronuclear interaction the ose-Einstein condensate is confined in the combined potential of the external dipole rap and the heteronuclear mean-field potential. The latter becomes stronger as the heteronuclear interaction increases. Hence, the effective confinement of the Bose- Einstein condensate which determines its mean-field energy is changed. A measurement f this interaction-dependent mean-field energy is performed by a sudden witch off of all confining potentials including the additional mean-field potential and n observation of the time-of-flight expansion of the condensate. A sudden switch off f the mean-field potential is realized in a good approximation by suddenly switching ff the Feshbach field, reducing the heteronuclear scattering length to its background alue. A related study has been done in the very first demonstration of tuning of omonuclear interactions in a Bose-Einstein condensate of 23Na [11] in the vicinity f a Feshbach resonance
In a second experiment, we study the influence of the heteronuclear interaction on e study the influence of the heteronuclear interaction on the ime-of-flight expansion of the Bose-Einstein condensate and the Fermi gas. When he heteronuclear interaction is left on during time-of-flight, the expansion of the two clouds is either slowed down due to attractive interaction or influenced by repulsive interactions. The study is performed by a sudden switch off of the external dipole rapping potential while the Feshbach field is left on during time of flight.
The condensate thus acts as a repulsive bump in the centre of the fermionic cloud pushing the fermion cloud out of the centre of the trap and boson cloud acting as an attractor according to laser populated fermion or boson domination. Out of Fashback resonance
hubblesite.org support: ISSUE=6706 PROJ=13 [Incident: 140118-000022 feedback@nature.com


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