Weekend Image: Gigantic Loop of Black Holes and Neutron Stars
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November 17, 2012

Weekend Image: Gigantic Loop of Black Holes and Neutron Stars

 

 

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Arp 147 contains the remnant of a spiral galaxy (right) that collided with the elliptical galaxy on the left. This collision has produced an expanding wave of star formation that shows up as a blue ring containing in abundance of massive young stars. These stars race through their evolution in a few million years or less and explode as supernovas, leaving behind neutron stars and black holes.

A fraction of the neutron stars and black holes will have companion stars, and may become bright X-ray sources as they pull in matter from their companions. The nine X-ray sources scattered around the ring in Arp 147 are so bright that they must be black holes, with masses that are likely ten to twenty times that of the Sun. 

 An X-ray source is also detected in the nucleus of the red galaxy on the left and may be powered by a poorly-fed supermassive black hole. This source is not obvious in the composite image but can easily be seen in the X-ray image. Other objects unrelated to Arp 147 are also visible: a foreground star in the lower left of the image and a background quasar as the pink source above and to the left of the red galaxy. 

Infrared observations with NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope and ultraviolet observations with NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) have allowed estimates of the rate of star formation in the ring. These estimates, combined with the use of models for the evolution of binary stars have allowed the authors to conclude that the most intense star formation may have ended some 15 million years ago, in Earth's time frame. 

These results were published in the October 1st, 2010 issue of The Astrophysical Journal. The authors were Saul Rappaport and Alan Levine from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, David Pooley from Eureka Scientific and Benjamin Steinhorn, also from MIT. 

The Daily Galaxy via nasa.gov

Comments

I was wondering why their magnetic fields don't repel?

The magnetic fields of The two galaxies? The galaxies are pretty much heading away from each other now. Even before the galactic collision, there would not have been a large enough coherent magnetic field around an entire galaxy to prevent a collision. I can't even really guarantee you that there is such a thing as a galactic magnetic field. That kind of vector math is way above my pay grade! :-)

That image is fascinating!

Another example of dark matter forming like mad. Neutron stars are essentially dark matter, BHs wannabes. BHs do squirt out material at the poles so they are not necessarily "dark", and event horizons do glow and of course Xray photons galore. I think it's a fox chase to try to count or account for all dark matter when we simply can not when it emits only a scant amount of photons...of course it HAS to emit at least some infrared photons for the universe is about 4deg. K.

When we finally accept BHs are energy "points" that essentially store all the energy equivalents of all the mass it sucked in, instead of thinking of them as concentrated matter, it will lead to discoveries and insight. The mass of a BH is a misnomer, instead, say "it's mass equivalent". Abbreviate it if you must, ME. The amount of energy stored would be equal to the following E=mc2 formula, terms explained below.

In the SI system (expressing the ratio E / m in joules per kilogram using the value of c in meters per second
E / m = c squared = (299,792,458 m/s or 983,571,056 ft/s)squared = 89,875,517,873,681,764 J/kg or roughly 8.9 x10 to the 16th power joules/kg or 8.9 x10 to the 13th power joules/gram.
So:
the energy equivalent of one gram of mass is equivalent to:
89.9 terajoules
25.0 million kilowatt-hours (≈25 GW·h)
21.5 billion kilocalories (≈21 Teracal)
85.2 billion BTUs
or to the energy released by combustion of the following:
21.5 kilotons of TNT-equivalent energy (≈21 kt)
568,000 US gallons of automotive gasoline

Therefore the amount of energy stored in one point of singularity (BH) would be equal to the above conversions per gram of stuff sucked in.

Some of that immense energy apparently is reformed back into matter, squirting out at relativistic velocities from the spin axis poles of the BH or that matter squirted out undergoes a transformation either right at or right below the event horizon...I'm not sure...comment needed. Since the matter squirted out is going so fast, a small part of the energy converstion back to mass isn't converted to mass, it's converted to velocity and therefore momentum, and to xray photons. Perhaps there is an overload of the BH system eating too fast, and the BH system HAS no choice but to be emit new mass and energy in the form of xrays and momentum of speed vs mass at the poles.


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