CERN's Large Hadron Collider Reveals New Type of Matter
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November 27, 2012

CERN's Large Hadron Collider Reveals New Type of Matter

 

 

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Collisions between protons and lead ions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) have produced unexpected behavior in some of the particles created by the collisions, creating a new type of matter known as color-glass condensate. When beams of particles crash into each other at high speeds, the collisions yield hundreds of new particles, most of which fly away from the collision point at close to the speed of light. However, the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) team at the LHC found that in a sample of two million lead-proton collisions, some pairs of particles flew away from each other with their respective directions correlated.

"Somehow they fly at the same direction even though it's not clear how they can communicate their direction with one another. That has surprised many people, including us," says MIT physics professor Gunther Roland, whose group led the analysis of the collision data along with Wei Li, a former MIT postdoc who is now an assistant professor at Rice University. A paper describing the unexpected findings will appear in an upcoming issue of the journal Physical Review B and is now available on arXiv.

The MIT heavy-ion group, which includes Roland and MIT physics professors Bolek Wyslouch and Wit Busza, saw the same distinctive pattern in proton-proton collisions about two years ago. The same flight pattern is also seen when ions of lead or other heavy metals, such as gold and copper, collide with each other.

Those heavy-ion collisions produce a wave of quark gluon plasma, the hot soup of particles that existed for the first few millionths of a second after the Big Bang. In the collider, this wave sweeps some of the resulting particles in the same direction, accounting for the correlation in their flight paths.

It has been theorized that proton-proton collisions may produce a liquid-like wave of gluons, known as color-glass condensate. This dense swarm of gluons may also produce the unusual collision pattern seen in proton-lead collisions, says Raju Venugopalan, a senior scientist at Brookhaven National Laboratory, who was not involved in the current research. Venugopalan and his former student Kevin Dusling theorized the existence of color-glass condensate shortly before the particle direction correlation was seen in proton-proton collisions.

While protons at normal energy levels consist of three quarks, they tend to gain an accompanying cluster of gluons at higher energy levels. These gluons exist as both particles and waves, and their wave functions can be correlated with each other. This "quantum entanglement" explains how the particles that fly away from the collision can share information such as direction of flight path, Venugopalan says. The correlation is "a very tiny effect, but it's pointing to something very fundamental about how quarks and gluons are arranged spatially within a proton," he says.

The CMS researchers originally set out to use the lead-proton collisions as a "reference system" for comparison with lead-lead collisions. "You don't expect quark gluon plasma effects" with lead-proton collisions, Roland says. "It was supposed to be sort of a reference run—a run in which you can study background effects and then subtract them from the effects that you see in lead-lead collisions."

That run lasted only four hours, but in January, the CMS collaboration plans to do several weeks of lead-proton collisions, which should allow them to establish whether the collisions really are producing a liquid, Roland says. This should help narrow down the possible explanations and determine if the effects seen in proton-proton, lead-proton and lead-lead collisions are related.

Journal reference: Physical Review B

Image credit: http://public.web.cern.ch/public/en/lhc/lhc-en.html

The Daily Galaxy via Massachusetts Institute of Technology


Comments

New and old Science

A new and Progressive Science shows how Wavevolution, or the transformation from waves to atoms, is the connecting link that closes the circle of science to open our eyes toward new horizons never seen before.

The bureaucracy of traditional science prevents the recognition of any event unless certain criteria are first met. The problem in this science is buried deep in the compilation of these "laws" or criteria introduced by a few scientists in the name of all science and from their erroneous understanding of the relation between Space and Time. This antiquated system of rules also results in misleading theories.

For example, Space is not “curved”.

In Einstein's paradigm, a stone that falls on the ground from the window of a moving train also marks one parabola in Space. Although, this path is only apparent since the Earth is also moving and the Time spent by the stone to reach the ground has also changed to some degree that imaginary vertical line. At the Time of the initial Movement when the stone falls from the window, its potential trajectory is one perpendicular Space that is no longer the same as the stone continues to move until it hits the ground. If the scientist had known that the coordinates of Space in Time are unique and unrepeatable then all the rest would have also been "straight". That perpendicular is straight but accounted as “curve” because of the limits of science unable to recognize the issue of simultaneity. In reference to each body on each moment in Time there are always only two coordinates in Space for one perpendicular.
And with two coordinates there is no curve.
One perpendicular is unrepeatable and never the same because while the measure of it is repeatable and any measurement can be applied for different segments instead one perpendicular marked in Time will never again have the same spatial positioning. The perpendicular changes in Time but Einstein believed that the concept of Space is independent from the concept of Time.

Another example is in the special theory of relativity which denies all absolutes and meanings of truth. This is in regard to Einstein's example of two beams of light hitting one same embankment of a railroad on two Points: Point A and Point B. In between the two there is also the middle point, Point M. If one train were to run over that track then on the train we would also have Point A1 on the wagon of the train correspondent to above Point A and also one other corresponding Point B1 right above Point B. We would also have on the train the corresponding Point M1 above Point M. Einstein's theory is that as for Point M (not moving because on the embankment) those two beams are simultaneous and equidistant, instead, for the passenger sitting on M1 and moving towards Point B1 (and also toward Point B) the two beams are not simultaneous because the beam in Point B1 is being approached by the moving train, therefore closer to M1. In this example, while Einstein’s concept of Time is rigidly kept unchanged in regard to the embankment, instead, the concept of Space is extended also to the next moment in Time when the traveler will move even if in that precise instant the traveler has not moved yet. Since the concept of simultaneity had been put aside, Einstein considered Time to be the same while Space instead had changed.

Also, this same scientist erroneously believed that all colors in the light spectrum travel at the same speed.

Much confusion comes from these approximations.

One new Awareness will be found in between the winding creativity of the human mind and the rigid logic of numbers.

http://www.wikinfo.org/Multilingual/index.php/Wavevolution

http://www.wavevolution.org/en/freethinking.html

Sometimes even reasonably good science writing can be bad. Here concepts that people THINK they know are being used to name things that only peripherally share characteristics with things like "liquids" and "glass".

The rationale for such usages should be described for the general public in a way that helps them to realize these conceptual connections are often little more than whimsical. From the description here we can't really know what is meant by these names.

Nor is there a sufficient explanation of the concept of quantum entanglement and the peculiar non-locality of information-sharing, which clearly is germane to this 'new' form of matter.


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