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Dark Energy --"Galaxy Clusters Provide Proof of Its Existence" (Whatever "It" Is)






Astronomers have known for over 80 years that our Universe is expanding from an event called the Big Bang. In 2011, the Nobel Prize in physics was awarded for the even more exciting discovery that the rate of expansion is increasing, rather than slowing down as might be expected. The cause of this acceleration, referred to as Dark Energy, is not understood.

"By looking at galaxy clusters at different epochs in cosmic history, astronomers can explore whether Dark Energy has acted differently at different times in the history of the Universe," says Dr. Jeeseon Song, lead author of a new study. "Galaxies, including our own Milky Way galaxy, are vast assemblages of stars and gas. Clusters of galaxies, conglomerates of tens to hundreds of galaxies, are the largest structures in the Universe. They are dynamically changing and aging over time. And that is very crucial in cosmological studies, because that's where we can see how Dark Energy is acting on the Universe, pulling the clusters

The team has identified an important sample of galaxy clusters whose distances have been determined accurately enough to study how the density of galaxy clusters varies with the age of the Universe. To do this, they began with observations from the South Pole Telescope, a millimeter-wavelength survey telescope. Crucial follow-up work at the Blanco 4-meter telescope at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory enabled them to refine cluster distances to within a few percent. The Blanco telescope, located in northern Chile, celebrates its 50th anniversary this year, but with modern instrumentation such as the Mosaic camera used in this study, it still plays a vital role in the cutting edge research.

It has been known for decades that in the expanding universe the farther away an object is, the faster it is receding from us. Measuring velocity is based on an effect seen in everyday life: as an object moves further away, its light shifts to longer, or red, wavelengths (called redshift). As an object moves closer, the light wavelengths shorten, shifting to blue. This Doppler shift of light waves is used by highway patrols to measure the velocity of cars on the highway. Because of the expansion of the Universe, objects with large redshifts are not only far away, they are also observed as they were a long time in the past.

When measuring distant objects in the Universe, astronomers refer to the redshift using the letter z. The galaxy clusters in this study have an average redshift, z, of about 0.6. At this redshift the Universe was only about half of its present age of 13.7 billion years. But the clusters span a range in distance from those close enough to be seen almost as they are in the present universe, to some with z as large as 1.4, which means we see them as they appeared when the Universe was less than a third of its present age.

A related discovery from this work concerns what are called Brightest Cluster Galaxies, or BCGs – the biggest and brightest galaxy in each cluster. As Alfredo Zenteno, the second author of this paper, observed: "The position of a BCG within a cluster indicates if the cluster is undergoing some violent internal motion – perhaps because it has suffered a smashup with another cluster. By studying the frequency of such collisions, we learn if these clusters are unique or not. This is crucial to understanding Dark Energy in clusters."

The image of the galaxy cluster Abell 3627 above shows X-rays from Chandra in blue, optical emission in yellow and emission from hydrogen light -- known to astronomers as 'H-alpha' -- in red. The optical and H-alpha data were obtained with the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) Telescope in Chile.

At the front of the tail is the galaxy ESO 137-001. The brighter of the two tails has been seen before and extends for about 260,000 light years. The detection of the second, fainter tail, however, was a surprise to the scientists.* The X-ray tails were created when cool gas from ESO 137-001 (with a temperature of about ten degrees above absolute zero) was stripped by hot gas (about 100 million degrees) as it travels towards the center of the galaxy cluster Abell 3627. What astronomers observe with Chandra is essentially the evaporation of the cold gas, which glows at a temperature of about 10 million degrees. Evidence of gas with temperatures between 100 and 1,000 degrees Kelvin in the tail was also found with the Spitzer Space Telescope.

Galaxy clusters are collections of hundreds or even thousands of galaxies held together by gravity that are enveloped in hot gas. The two-pronged tail in this system may have formed because gas has been stripped from the two major spiral arms in ESO 137-001. The stripping of gas is thought to have a significant effect on galaxy evolution, removing cold gas from the galaxy, shutting down the formation of new stars in the galaxy, and changing the appearance of inner spiral arms and bulges because of the effects of star formation.'

In the image below, taken at the Blanco telescope, the boundary of the cluster of galaxies is marked with a dashed line. The brightest galaxy in the cluster galaxy (BCG) is circled.



The Daily Galaxy via National Radio Astronomy Observatory

Image Credits: X-ray: NASA/CXC/UVa/M. Sun et al; H-alpha/Optical: SOAR/MSU/NOAO/UNC/CNPq-Brazil/M.Sun et al.


First and foremost, any measurements of Dark Energy should be analysed as measurements of the non homogeneity of our universe. Only relative velocities covering a few spots has been observed (very skillfully i must say). We need a more extensive view of anisotropy, non homogeneity and a true measurement of acceleration to know if Dark energy is real.

What if our universe is not born in a singularity but was contained in a finite amount of space existing in a larger universe?

This would imply a relative center. The current observation could simply be relative kinetic energy that is non homogeneous on large scale. We have all listened too many times that our universe is homogeneous and isotropic but recent measurements tells us the contrary... We need more time and measurements...

There are several possbilities when u start speculating about the absolute nature of the Universe..e.g. A Fractal structure where each universe emerges out as if from the disturbances of a magnetic monopole and again that monopole is contained in some other Universe which in turn again sprouts from another monopole..this cycle goes on..giving us a Multiverse scenario.
In the long run perhaps we shall understand that every Closed point or singulairty which we like to call the Epicentre of Creation is also not absolute, rather it itself is contained or submerged wutihn the depths of another continuum of full-fledged Creation.
So the ultimate structure is speculative. But what we know in our dear observable universe for sure is that it is Accelearting and the driving force because of its mysterious nature is called Dark Energy.
So we have to derive proofs about its existence and if possible about its nature more accurately from observations of phenomenon which respond electromagnetically, for Knowledge to us has always been synonymous with Electromagnetism. Cluster catastrophes like those seen in MS 0735.6 or the cluster surrounding 3C 438 are vestiges of some colossal energetic manifestations of visible matter in past. So its worth investigating them deeply and their recession velocities and stuffs related to these in order to know Dark Energy better.

The Blanco telescope isn't 50 years old. I was working at Kitt Peak in Arizona in the late 1960s, before the Mayall 4m was commissioned there. Blanco was post-Mayall, so it's probably 40 years old at most - maybe a bit less.


Quote: "Dark Energy --"Galaxy Clusters Provide Proof of Its Existence" (Whatever "It" Is)".

What kind of a headline-statement is this? How can a proof be claimed on basis of an unknown phenomenon? This is not science, but based on pure assumptions as with many other topics in modern cosmology and astrophysics.

There are especially 2 cosmological assumptions that make it go all wrong:

1: The hypothesis of the linear time scale of the Universe.

2: The consensus gravity model.

AD 1: Everything in cosmos is moving in swirling 3D spherical circuits because of several dynamics of which electrodynamics and magnetic dynamics are essential, just think of the magnetic circuits of the Sun and the Earth.

If taking an approach from the Big Bang hypothesis, it is of course completely illogical to assume that an extra force makes the expansion goes faster.

But when looking at the cosmic movements as taking place in a 3D sphere, an observation of an increased velocity can be observed in the situation where something is moving in spirals closer to a centre. In another situation the observed velocity can be measured as a decreasing motion.

So: All measurements depends on which location and movement an actual object are moving in a 3D spherical circuit and it seems most likely that the observable part of the Universe are moving towards and overall centre in a larger circuit. And when moving in a larger circuit this of course totally contradicts the linear timescale and the Big Bang model. (It is postulated that the local galactic super clusters are moving toward a common centre, called the “big attractor” so there we have a confirming overall centre for an overall and huge 3D-spherical circuit)

(This explanation has nothing to do with a gravity model because everything is moving in such a 3D-circuit so there is no centre of gravity and therefore also no objects of gravitational force, i.e. there is no “black holes and "black objects”).

AD 2: The consensus gravity model was contradicted by the “galactic rotation anomaly” which is not an anomaly at all because everything in our galaxy also is mowing in a 3D-spherical circuit of infolding and outfolding formation as explained in the last sentence above.

- If taking the above explained circuit model of formation for granted, our solar system of course also participate in the galactic circuit. If – or when so – our solar system was once formatted directly in the galactic centre and has moved out in the galactic arms via a perpendicular circular motion of the rotation plane, all caused by the central nuclear formation in the centre.

That is: Our solar system – and other objects in the galaxy – is not under influence by any central gravity force (as the galactic anomaly underpins) since it all takes place in a fluent circuit. The rotation of the sun is created directly of the nuclear formation in the galactic centre by the circular motion out in the galactic bars. The very same also goes for the planets rotation and their orbits around the sun. They all get their rotation and orbital motion from the formative momentum in the galactic centre, accordingly to the actual composition of gas and particles that they are made of.

So “gravity” is out of the equation regarding the circular motions and orbits, but what then about the planetary force of weight? What kind of force can create a feeling of weight on the rotational and orbiting planets? Of course we have the electromagnetic bindings of atoms that temporarily hold everything together, but we also have the pressure from the orbital motion in the galaxy and around the sun.

The Earth and other planets are NOT moving in “empty space”. Everything is moving in “the hydrogen sea” which creates the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation. This – of course together with other pressures and magnetic influence from the sun and other objects in our galaxy – causes a total force that creates pressure on the atmosphere and surface on the Earth when moving around in the solar and galactic orbit.

The tidal movements can fairly easily be hypothesized and explained by the Earth daily rotation via the pressure from the Sun and the “shadowing effect” from mostly the Moon and secondarily from the shading effect of other planets. These changing pressure effects of course also explain the variable “gravity”-pressures measured on the Earth surface.


1: The Big Bang model should logically be discarded and be substituted by the 3D-spherical circuit model.

2: The gravity model should have been discarded already when the “galactic rotation anomaly” was observed and substituted by a dynamic model that explains both “attraction” and expansion in the 3D spherical formative processes and movements.

3: There is NO NEED AT ALL to operate with any kind of “dark forces and energies” in modern cosmology.

It is all in all just a question of looking at the cosmic formation and movements of objects in the 3D-spherical circuits and of explaining the planetary weight-giving forces as orbiting speed pressures and shading of pressures.

Ivar Nielsen
Natural Philosopher

Fingers of God in an Expanding Universe

"If one looks in the Southern Sky at about 13h 06m -33d 04m one encounters the richest cluster of galaxies known - The Shapley Supercluster. Recently spectra of many galaxies in the cluster have been measured (Proust et al. 2006). They vary from a few thousand to at least 60,000 km/sec. (The latter velocity would be close to 1/5 the speed of light!)

The prevailing current assumption in astronomy today is that the amount of redshift is directly a measure of distance. So the higher redshifts in this cluster would be at at distance of the order of 20% of the radius of the Universe.

It is truly remarkable that authoritative astronomerse and physicists can measure galaxies in a well defined cluster and accept without question that some of the members are 1,000 Mpc from other members (that is, over 3,000,000,000 light years distant from other members).

What do they think this cluster is? In fact they are forced to say it is a structure that I would compare to a great sausage stretching out from us toward the outer reaches of the Universe. The miraculous aspect is that this sausage is pointing directly at us, the observer.

But perhaps an even stranger aspect is that the far end would be receding from us at an appreciable fraction of the speed of light. Quick, the mustard!

These cluster elongations toward the observer have been noticed in other regions of the sky and, causing some inquietude, been dubbed "Fingers of God". The reason for unease is obvious. The fingers are pointing to the conclusion that we live in some special place in the Universe. Very anti-Copernican.

Is there any way out of this embarassing situation? Yes. As a last resort, one can look at the observations. For 40 years now evidence has been building that bright parent galaxies are surounded by younger, companion galaxies which have higher intrinsic redshifts. When plotted in a cone diagram, as shown in Arp 1998, p.71, the younger galaxies are at higher redshift and stretch out behind the brighter, low redshift parents."

What was that 3D spherical circuit?
I fee like im floating with everything around me in some sort of an event horizon..
3D spherical circuit and all its flow sounds like someone is trying to portray the Universe as a huge black hole..its like The centre is God. But therer is no reason to discard the concepts of Black Holes and Dark Energies..they r there waiting in the shadows. The thing is we have to find some way to fathom into the nature of Darkness.
It can be possible by detecting gravitons if its there..it should be there.
Dark Energy componenets can then be thought of as some sort of Anti-Graviton particles providing a relentless repulsive drive.
But the universe is no Circuit made of concentric spheres..its more like the depiction of the Spiral arms of a spiral galaxy. Universe is not linear also.it can be thought of as a sphere too pressurized from the inside constantly by the presence of dark energy .but it doesnt matter whether we think of its as linear or circular..and homogeneity is present only in the observable limit.

Explaining one mystery with another... How scientific is that?

A theist can say, that the existence of DNA is a proof of God!

Cosmology is not physics, it's a philosophical endeavor.

@Indrajit Patra,
Just think of an electromagnetic circuit - as on the spherical sun - working all over the place - including inside yourself in your atoms.
Or think of an egg cell being fertilized by a sperm cell which creates a formation process of infolding and outfolding cells ending up with the birth of a baby.
It is just the very same with all movements in cosmos. All gasses and particles undergo formation of assembling and dissolving in eternity.

Thanks again Ivar. I think I am dissolving into eternity.

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