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Solar Winds Found a Source for Moon's Water


                         Solar (1)

Three years ago researchers helped to discover water on the surface of the moon. Now, they are piecing together the origin of that water: solar wind, the continuous flow of charged particles from the sun. Scientists have speculated it to be responsible for water on the surface of the moon.

in 2011, Larry Taylor, distinguished professor in the Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences at the University of Tennesse, confirmed comets as the source for water inside the moon. This year, Yang Liu, research assistant professor, and Taylor have confirmed solar wind as the source for water on the outside—by depositing positively charged hydrogen atoms, or protons, onto its surface, allowing it to combine with the moon's oxygen to create water.

"When those protons hit the lunar surface with enough force, they break apart oxygen bonds in soil materials to join together and form water," said Liu. "This does not happen on Earth because our atmosphere and magnetic field protect us from being bombarded by these protons, but the moon lacks this protection."

The researchers used lunar samples from three Apollo missions, including one brought back by Neil Armstrong, analyzing something called an agglutinate. An agglutinate, which resembles "dirty Swiss cheese," is a unique product of space weathering in the lunar regolith, the crushed materials on the moon's surface. The agglutinate was chosen because it consisted of products suspected to contain hydrogen. The researchers used infrared spectroscopy to confirm the presence of hydroxyl (OH). Then they used secondary ion mass spectrometry to obtain the amount of hydroxyl and the origins of the hydrogen.

The researchers discovered that most of the water in the agglutinates came from solar wind. Confirming the solar-wind- induced hydroxyl emphasizes the possibility of finding water on the surface of other similar airless bodies.

"This means water likely exists on Mercury and on the asteroids such as Vesta or Eros further within our solar system," said Liu. "These planetary bodies have very different environments, but all have potential to produce water. The finding also implies solar-wind contributes to water ice in lunar poles."* The research also identifies the largest reservoir for water on the lunar surface since regolith, and thus the corresponding hydroxyl is very widespread. This gives the moon the potential to serve as a habitat and gas station in the sky.

"The hydroxyl in such a volumetrically large reservoir is a valuable resource," said Taylor. "With the cost of $25,000 for taking one pint of water to the moon, water has the potential to be used as rocket fuel as liquid hydrogen or oxygen."

The Daily Galaxy via 


Is Liu implying that most of our planet's water supply was caused by these charged particles (positively charged Hydrogen atoms) before our atmosphere was finally developed during our Earths early formation?

Maybe you can do this for us.

What I think would be interesting to see are some side by side pictures taken of the solar system back in, say 1947, my birth year. Then take the same picture with the newest equipment in this time and age and compare them.

I just think it would be very interesting to see the difference in clarity and maybe even what was written about the first photo and see how the views have changed since.

If you do this would you please let me know what day you're going to publish this please?

I enjoy The Daily Galaxy. I have been following this site for some time now. You really put up some interesting articles and pictures. I check out the email everyday. I look forward to it. I also like that you talk to us, so those of us who are not really into this can understand what you're discovering and talking about.

Thanks again. Keep up the good work.


I believe what the author is implying is that water could potentially be processed on the moon.

As far as the Earth goes, the author states that the Earth wouldn't be affected by this because of the atmosphere. I do not believe that they are implying that it is the definite source of Earth's water. I believe there are theories on this, but I would not be able to point you in the right direction for more information on this.

Google it, perhaps?

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