Star-System TW Hydrae --"Harbors Several Thousand Earth-Sized Oceans"
H3+ of Interstellar Space --"One of the Most Important Molecules in Existence."

Extraordinarily Luminous Galaxies of the Universe --Found Caused by Cosmic Collisions




The peculiar butterfly shape of luminous galaxy NGC 6240 above was caused by the collision of two smaller galaxies. A Chandra  high-resolution image of the galaxy's central region revealed not one, but two active giant black holes. Over the course of the next few hundred million years, the two supermassive black holes, which are about 3000 light years apart, will drift toward one another and merge to form one larger supermassive black hole.

The relatively recent merger (30 million years) that formed this galaxy triggered a dramatic increase in the rate of star formation and supernova explosions. Heat generated by this activity created the extensive multimillion degree Celsius gas seen in this image. The red, green, and blue colors represent low, medium and high X-ray energies, respectively.

Almost thirty years ago the Infrared Astronomy Satellite, IRAS, discovered that the universe contained many extraordinary luminous galaxies, some of them more than a thousand times brighter than our own galaxy, but which are practically invisible at optical wavelengths. The reason for their optical dimness is that their bright light comes not from stars, which can be seen in the visible, but from dust that is warmed by bursts of star formation to temperatures of about 70 kelvin (about 200 degrees below zero Celsius) where infrared radiation predominates.

Luminous galaxies not only shed light on how galaxies evolve and form stars, they act as lanterns that can be seen across cosmological distances, thereby helping scientists study the relatively early universe.The IRAS galaxies are luminous because they contain so much of this warm dust. Astronomers suspect that most of them have been involved in collisional encounters that stimulated vigorous star formation, as gravitational effects induce interstellar gas to condense into stars.

The challenge for astronomers is how to confirm and refine these general conclusions. The Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics astronomers have an active research effort that uses computer simulations of interacting galaxies to calculate the luminosity of these systems, to uncover how their luminosity evolves with time, and to determine the specific contribution of starburst activity to the infrared emission.

A new paper by CfA astronomers Lars Hernquist and Chris Hayward and two of their colleagues looks at the ways in which galaxy collisions can distort the shapes of the galaxies involved, including the shapes and orientations of the regions around their central black holes. They compare the orientation of the nuclei (as measured by disks and outflowing jets) with the large-scale orientations of the host galaxies.

In their computer simulations, they report finding only weak correlations between these alignments. It turns out that misalignments can easily be introduced as giant clumps of material fall into the region of the black hole and alter its spin, or more gradually as twists develop and evolve in the gas of the spinning galaxy. Their conclusion is in agreement with the observational data, namely, that there is a poor correlation between the orientation of the spin axis of a host galaxy and of its black hole nucleus.

The results will help shed light on a range of related issues, including how infalling gas in a galaxy can efficiently feed its black hole, and whether light from the nuclear region is likely to be obscured by viewing through the galaxy's disk of material.

The Daily Galaxy via Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Image credit: Hopkins 2012


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