Do Einstein's Theories Breakdown at the Event Horizon of a Black Hole? --"The Exit Door from Our Universe"
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September 29, 2012

Do Einstein's Theories Breakdown at the Event Horizon of a Black Hole? --"The Exit Door from Our Universe"

 

           M87 (1)

 

An international team, led by researchers at MIT’s Haystack Observatory, has for the first time measured the radius of a black hole at the center of a distant galaxy — the closest distance at which matter can approach before being irretrievably pulled into a black hole, which can be billions of times more massive than our sun may reside at the heart of most galaxies. Such supermassive black holes are so powerful that activity at their boundaries can ripple throughout their host galaxies.

The scientists linked together radio dishes in Hawaii, Arizona and California to create a telescope array called the “Event Horizon Telescope” (EHT) that can see details 2,000 times finer than what’s visible to the Hubble Space Telescope. These radio dishes were trained on M87, a galaxy some 50 million light years from the Milky Way in the Virgo Cluster (image above). M87 harbors a black hole 6 billion times more massive than our sun; using this array, the team observed the glow of matter near the edge of this black hole — a region known as the “event horizon.”

“Once objects fall through the event horizon, they’re lost forever,” says Shep Doeleman, assistant director at the MIT Haystack Observatory and research associate at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. “It’s an exit door from our universe. You walk through that door, you’re not coming back.”* Supermassive black holes are the most extreme objects predicted by Albert Einstein’s theory of gravity — where, according to Doeleman, “gravity completely goes haywire and crushes an enormous mass into an incredibly close space.”

At the edge of a black hole, the gravitational force is so strong that it pulls in everything from its surroundings. However, not everything can cross the event horizon to squeeze into a black hole. The result is a “cosmic traffic jam” in which gas and dust build up, creating a flat pancake of matter known as an accretion disk. This disk of matter orbits the black hole at nearly the speed of light, feeding the black hole a steady diet of superheated material. Over time, this disk can cause the black hole to spin in the same direction as the orbiting material.

Caught up in this spiraling flow are magnetic fields, which accelerate hot material along powerful beams above the accretion disk The resulting high-speed jet, launched by the black hole and the disk, shoots out across the galaxy, extending for hundreds of thousands of light-years. These jets can influence many galactic processes, including how fast stars form.

A jet’s trajectory may help scientists understand the dynamics of black holes in the region where their gravity is the dominant force. Doeleman says such an extreme environment is perfect for confirming Einstein’s theory of general relativity — today’s definitive description of gravitation.

 

                       Black_hole

The image above, created using computer models, shows how the extreme gravity of the black hole in M87 distorts the appearance of the jet near the event horizon. Part of the radiation from the jet is bent by gravity into a ring that is known as the ‘shadow’ of the black hole.

“Einstein’s theories have been verified in low-gravitational field cases, like on Earth or in the solar system,” Doeleman says. “But they have not been verified precisely in the only place in the universe where Einstein’s theories might break down — which is right at the edge of a black hole."

According to Einstein’s theory, a black hole’s mass and its spin determine how closely material can orbit before becoming unstable and falling in toward the event horizon. Because M87’s jet is magnetically launched from this smallest orbit, astronomers can estimate the black hole’s spin through careful measurement of the jet’s size as it leaves the black hole.

Until now, no telescope has had the magnifying power required for this kind of observation.* “We are now in a position to ask the question, ‘Is Einstein right?’” Doeleman says. “We can identify features and signatures predicted by his theories, in this very strong gravitational field.”

The team used a technique called Very Long Baseline Interferometry, or VLBI, which links data from radio dishes located thousands of miles apart. Signals from the various dishes, taken together, create a “virtual telescope” with the resolving power of a single telescope as big as the space between the disparate dishes. The technique enables scientists to view extremely precise details in faraway galaxies.

Using the technique, Doeleman and his team measured the innermost orbit of the accretion disk to be only 5.5 times the size of the black hole event horizon. According to the laws of physics, this size suggests that the accretion disk is spinning in the same direction as the black hole — the first direct observation to confirm theories of how black holes power jets from the centers of galaxies.

The team plans to expand its telescope array, adding radio dishes in Chile, Europe, Mexico, Greenland and Antarctica, in order to obtain even more detailed pictures of black holes in the future.

Christopher Reynolds, a professor of astronomy at the University of Maryland, says the group’s results provide the first observational data that will help scientists understand how a black hole’s jets behave. “The basic nature of jets is still mysterious,” Reynolds says. “Many astrophysicists suspect that jets are powered by black hole spin … but right now, these ideas are still entirely in the realm of theory. This measurement is the first step in putting these ideas on a firm observational basis.”

The image below, from the jet is bent by gravity into a ring that is known as the ‘shadow’ of the black hole.

 

           Accretion-disk

Source: Sheperd S. Doeleman et al., Jet-Launching Structure Resolved Near the Supermassive Black Hole in M87, Science, 2012, DOI: 10.1126/science.1224768

The Daily Galaxy via Science, The Perimeter Institute, and University of Waterloo

Image credits: Avery E. Broderick, Perimeter Institute & University of Waterloo

Comments

They've measured the radius of a hypothetical construct?

I've been looking forward to the EHT results and they haven't dissapointed me.

A more rational explanation might be that we're looking -once again- at the homopolar morphology.

@orkneylad,

I think you are right on the spot there.

Quotation:

”The usual definition of what a galaxy is: 'An island universe', or 'A vast collection of stars' is not wrong, but it is misleading. Because of the vast distances that separate stars even in the most densely packed regions of most galaxies, a better definition is: 'A vast formation of plasma clouds that contain electrical currents and occasional, widely distributed tiny lumped points of matter called nebulae, stars and planets. The shape that characterizes most galaxies was first described by Hannes Alfven in 1981”. - http://electric-cosmos.org/galaxies.htm

AD: Astrophysicists and cosmologists don´t get it right unless they skip the strange gravity-models and the Big Bang illusion and look at the cosmic formations as being circuits caused by many natural dynamics where everything is in-folded, reformatted and out-folded again in eternity.

I’m not asking for much, just ONE picture that would support the idea of the EV and these singularities from which nothing -not even light- can escape. Considering the enourmous resources that have been put into this search over many decades, I find it odd that not one single image has been captured which would clearly support this hypothesis.

Instead of anything remotely resembling an ‘event horizon’, we see these regions spitting out huge quantities of matter along the axis of rotation, a classic signature of the homopolar morphology described by Hannes Alfven’s plasma cosmology.

It is not just Einstein theories that break down. It is also Newton´s. Einstein´s break down because of the time-space connection and “bended space” and Newton´s because of the rigid gravity theories that even miss to comply with galaxies.

“The event horizon” mirrors very well the 2 dimensional cosmologies that rule the modern consensus science in this area. It is just a picture of this science that states: “We haven´t a clue at all what is going on”.

- When magnetic gamma rays radiates out from a galaxy on both sides of the galactic disc plane, there is logically talking of an electric formation in the galactic centre that takes place on the nuclear level, sorting out gas and particles from the disc via the magnetic circuit in the galaxy and lump these together in larger spheres that becomes stars and planets that gently are slung perpendicularly to the gamma radiation axis and out in the galactic surroundings again.

We are talking of galactic circuits where matter flows in these circuits and therefore “gravity”, which is connected to matter, logically cannot be a constant force or connected to any stationary object ore dynamic phenomenon. Not even a "black hole".

NB: Watch this Nassim Haramein video:

http://www.veoh.com/watch/v211655826NC94xJz?h1=Nassim+Haramein+-++Black+Whole+

- Nassim has lots of super ideas and very fine alternative and logical explanations about the overall motions in the big scale and small scale Universe, but I don´t like his idea of "black hole singularities that creates everything”.

Instead he should replace this concept with simple magnetic 3D spherical circuits where the so-called Z-Pinch twisting effect, located in the middle of all magnetic circuits, is what dissolve; creates and recreates everything.

- And in my opinion, “the vacuum” consists of the molecular hydrogenic structure that makes the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation. This hydrogenic structure is also “the Aether” – or what mythologically is called “The Primeval Waters” that is everywhere in the Universe.


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