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Search for Extraterrestrial Life Becomes More Complex --"Strategies Require Rethinking"




Instruments on the European Space Agency's ExoMars and Rosetta missions were designed to search for an excess of left-handed molecules as an indicator of life.

But a new study the Daily Galaxy reported on last week found that meteorites collected from Canada's Tagish Lake also have a excesses of left-handed aspartic and glutamic acids, two amino acids that are common in terrestrial life due to the fact that in the solar system's early days, heating as a result of radioactivity could have melted ice trapped deep inside asteroids, which dissolved the amino acids, crystallising into mostly left-handed groupings.

This new study is the first ever to propose a natural presence for large left-handed enrichments in nonbiological materials, says Daniel Glavin of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, lead author of a paper on this research to be published in the journal Meteoritics and Planetary Science.

 "As evidence mounts that [left-handed] excess occurs naturally across bodies in the solar system, any strategies designed to search for life based on looking for this excess require serious rethinking," says Alberto Fairen of the SETI Institute in Mountain View, California. 

Researchers analyzing meteorite fragments that fell on a frozen Tagish Llake in Canada have developed an explanation for the origin of life's "handedness" or "chirality" – why living things only use molecules with specific orientations.

The work also gave the strongest evidence to date that liquid water inside an asteroid leads to a strong preference of left-handed over right-handed forms of some common protein amino acids in meteorites. The result makes the search for extraterrestrial life more challenging.

"Our analysis of the amino acids in meteorite fragments from Tagish Lake gave us one possible explanation for why all known life uses only left-handed versions of amino acids to build proteins," said Glavin.

In January, 2000, a large meteoroid exploded in the atmosphere over northern British Columbia, Canada, and rained fragments across the frozen surface of Tagish Lake. Because many people witnessed the fireball, pieces were collected within days and kept preserved in their frozen state. This ensured that there was very little contamination from terrestrial life.

"The Tagish Lake meteorite continues to reveal more secrets about the early Solar System the more we investigate it," said Dr. Christopher Herd of the University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada, a co-author on the paper who provided samples of the Tagish Lake meteorite for the team to analyze. "This latest study gives us a glimpse into the role that water percolating through asteroids must have played in making the left-handed amino acids that are so characteristic of all life on Earth."



Proteins are the workhorse molecules of life, used in everything from structures like hair to enzymes, the catalysts that speed up or regulate chemical reactions. Just as the 26 letters of the alphabet are arranged in limitless combinations to make words, life uses 20 different amino acids in a huge variety of arrangements to build millions of different proteins. Amino acid molecules can be built in two ways that are mirror images of each other, like your hands. Although life based on right-handed amino acids would presumably work fine, they can't be mixed.

"Synthetic proteins created using a mix of left- and right-handed amino acids just don't work," says Dr. Jason Dworkin of NASA Goddard, co-author of the study and head of the Goddard Astrobiology Analytical Laboratory, where the analysis was performed. *Since life can't function with a mix of left- and right-handed amino acids, researchers want to know how life – at least, life on Earth -- got set up with the left-handed ones. "The handedness observed in biological molecules – left-handed amino acids and right-handed sugars – is a property important for molecular recognition processes and is thought to be a prerequisite for life," said Dworkin.

All ordinary methods of synthetically creating amino acids result in equal mixtures of left- and right-handed amino acids. Therefore, how the nearly exclusive production of one hand of such molecules arose from what were presumably equal mixtures of left and right molecules in a prebiotic world has been an area of intensive research. 

Theteam ground up samples of the Tagish Lake meteorites, mixed them into a hot-water solution, then separated and identified the molecules in them using a liquid chromatograph mass spectrometer.

"We discovered that the samples had about four times as many left-handed versions of aspartic acid as the opposite hand," says Glavin. Aspartic acid is an amino acid used in every enzyme in the human body. It is also used to make the sugar substitute Aspartame. "Interestingly, the same meteorite sample showed only a slight left-hand excess (no more than eight percent) for alanine, another amino acid used by life."

"At first, this made no sense, because if these amino acids came from contamination by terrestrial life, both amino acids should have large left-handed excesses, because both are common in biology," says Glavin. "However, a large left-hand excess in one and not the other tells us that they were not created by life but instead were made inside the Tagish Lake asteroid."

The team confirmed that the amino acids were probably created in space using isotope analysis.  Isotopes are versions of an element with different masses; for example, carbon 13 is a heavier, and less common, variety of carbon. Since the chemistry of life prefers lighter isotopes, amino acids enriched in the heavier carbon 13 were likely created in space.

"We found that the aspartic acid and alanine in our Tagish Lake samples were highly enriched in carbon 13, indicating they were probably created by non-biological processes in the parent asteroid," said Dr. Jamie Elsila of NASA Goddard, a co-author on the paper who performed the isotopic analysis.

This is the first time that carbon isotope measurements have been reported for these amino acids in Tagish Lake. The carbon 13 enrichment, combined with the large left-hand excess in aspartic acid but not in alanine, provides very strong evidence that some left-handed proteinogenic amino acids -- ones used by life to make proteins -- can be produced in excess in asteroids, according to the team.

Some have argued that left-handed amino acid excesses in meteorites were formed by exposure to polarized radiation in the solar nebula – the cloud of gas and dust from which asteroids, and eventually the Solar System, were formed. However, in this case, the left-hand aspartic acid excesses are so large that they cannot be explained by polarized radiation alone. The team believes that another process is required.

Additionally, the large left-hand excess in aspartic acid but not in alanine gave the team a critical clue as to how these amino acids could have been made inside the asteroid, and therefore how a large left-hand excess could arise before life originated on Earth.  

"One thing that jumped out at me was that alanine and aspartic acid can crystallize differently when you have mixtures of both left-handed and right-handed molecules," said Dr. Aaron Burton, a NASA Postdoctoral Program Fellow at NASA Goddard and a co-author on the study. "This led us to find several studies where researchers have exploited the crystallization behavior of molecules like aspartic acid to get left-handed or right-handed excesses. Because alanine forms different kinds of crystals, these same processes would produce equal amounts of left- and right-handed alanine. We need to do some more experiments, but this explanation has the potential to explain what we see in the Tagish Lake meteorite and other meteorites."

The team believes a small initial left-hand excess could get amplified by crystallization and dissolution from a saturated solution with liquid water. Some amino acids, like aspartic acid, have a shape that lets them fit together in a pure crystal – one comprised of just left-handed or right-handed molecules. For these amino acids, a small initial left- or right-hand excess could become greatly amplified at the expense of the opposite-handed crystals, similar to the way a large snowball gathers more snow and gets bigger more rapidly when rolled downhill than a small one.

Other amino acids, like alanine, have a shape that prefers to join together with their mirror image to make a crystal, so these crystals are comprised of equal numbers of left- and right-handed molecules. As these "hybrid" crystals grow, any small initial excess would tend to be washed out for these amino acids. A requirement for both of these processes is a way to convert left-handed to right-handed molecules, and vice-versa, while they are dissolved in the solution.

This process only amplifies a small excess that already exists. Perhaps a tiny initial left-hand excess was created by conditions in the solar nebula. For example, polarized ultraviolet light or other types of radiation from nearby stars might favor the creation of left-handed amino acids or the destruction of right-handed ones, according to the team.

This initial left-hand excess could then get amplified in asteroids by processes like crystallization. Impacts from asteroids and meteorites could deliver this material to Earth, and left-handed amino acids might have been incorporated into emerging life due to their greater abundance, according to the team. Also, similar enrichments of left-handed amino acids by crystallization could have occurred on Earth in ancient sediments that had water flowing through them, such as the bottoms of rivers, lakes, or seas, according to the team.

The result complicates the search for extraterrestrial life – like microbial life hypothesized to dwell beneath the surface of Mars, for example. "Since it appears a non-biological process can create a left-hand excess in some kinds of amino acids, we can't use such an excess alone as proof of biological activity," says Glavin.

TheDaily Galaxy via NASA Goddard Space Flight Center



Thats funny, I am right-handed!


I have a question that one of your readers who has a greater grasp of physics than I can answer.
Why do most things in the universe,from electrons to galaxies move in a counter clockwise direction i.e. from right to left?

It is the will of me.

William R.Templeton
I believe it is a matter of perspective. A galaxy spinning counter-clockwise from above or below will be clockwise from the opposite side.

Once again we are making assumptions about life in the universe based on evidence we have available to us here on Earth. Notice how it says in the article that the meteorite found gives 1 possible explanation for why all "known life" uses certain combinations of proteins. Examine the term "known life" for just a second. We only know of life here on this 1 single planet in the entire universe. So how can we even attempt to create these assumptions based on totally incomplete evidence? Until we began exploring other forms of non terrestrial life on other planets, can we really say these assumptions are based on anything other than hypothesis?

A new SETI: 1) develop technology to allow detecting oxygen in the atmospheres of all the exo-planets that we are finding. 2) automate the process. 3) if you find oxygen, then you try radio. 4) answer these questions: given that the Earth reached the 21% level of oxygen about 1.5 billion years ago, any technologically advanced ET in this, and any number of neighboring, galaxies knows for a fact that life exists here. If anything out there is the least bit interested then we are under observation. Can we detect our being observed? Are there alien nanoprobes on Earth?

A rebuttal to Stephen Hawking: from the above it is obvious that a paranoid and or hostile evil ET is a figment of the imagination. If we are here it is only because ETs don't exist at all, or no hostile ET exists. At 10% lightspeed, the travel times in the galaxy max out at millions of years, to local galactic neighbors, tens of millions of years. Much, much less than 1.5 billion years

William, If in doubt..give smartypants a shout! Alright sp?

Hello Ruth. Glad to see youre still here!

The reason they use the term "known life" is because they realize there are many many possible life forms that are beyond imagination. Since they didnt want to guess and make me correct them, they thought about it and used terms that made more sense. "Known life" pretty much means "life forms we know about" and not "life forms we have never seen or heard of", so they kind of agree with you without the bitching.

Referring back to the counter clockwise movement of much of the universe:Draw a picture of a pin-wheel galaxy,place it on the floor,then put it on the ceiling,unless I am missing something they both appear to move from right to left.
Of course if we move away from a flat universe or question space-time that suggests indentations caused by objects of large mass and if we are in a hole caused by our galaxy,our sun,our earth then,then,then.,....I have to think more about my statement..Not being snarkey,I just would like more clarification to get things right in my head.

I am a little suspicious why polarized light is purposely dismissed for being the cause of the left handed spiraling of amino acids when experiments have already proven it to be so; also, why be so short sighted and limit it to only radiation from solar nebula and not expand it to the galactic umbilicus. It seems that we are being swayed to believe that life exists purely by chance and that the future is determined by random events. This cannot be true because a complex organism would not exist if its past processes were not determined by its future state.

Lets try it like this. Take a clock (the type with hands) and set it on the floor facing up. Motion is clockwise. Put it on the ceiling facing down, still clockwise. Then start over. Put it on the floor and imagine its a galaxy core and the arms extend to the walls. Instead of flipping it over raise it straight up like you are passing through the galaxy. When it hits the ceiling it is facing up still and the motion is counter-clockwise.

Thank you, I get your point.I guess where I went wrong is that it was not that the galaxy moved but that I moved,since I was the observer and my perspective.I should have remained stationary.
Thank`s again.

The Coming Extraterrstrial Invasion:

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