Emergence of the Human 'SuperBrain' 75,000 Years Ago --"AI Could Blur Differences between Humans and Computers in Coming Centuries"
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April 19, 2012

Emergence of the Human 'SuperBrain' 75,000 Years Ago --"AI Could Blur Differences between Humans and Computers in Coming Centuries"

 

          Robonaut2

There is archaeological evidence for the evolution of a human "super-brain" no later than 75,000 years ago that spurred a modern capacity for novelty and invention, according to John Hoffecker, an archaeologist at the University of Colorado.

Scientists seeking to understand the origin of the human mind may want to look to honeybees -- not ancestral apes -- for at least some of the answers, according to a Hoffecker.

Hoffecker says there is abundant fossil and archaeological evidence for the evolution of the human mind, including its unique power to create a potentially infinite variety of thoughts expressed in the form of sentences, art and technologies. He attributes the evolving power of the mind to the formation of what he calls the "super-brain," or collective mind, an event that took place in Africa no later than 75,000 years ago.

An internationally known archaeologist who has worked at sites in Europe and the Arctic, Hoffecker said the formation of the super-brain was a consequence of a rare ability to share complex thoughts among individual brains. Among other creatures on Earth, the honeybee may be the best example of an organism that has mastered the trick of communicating complex information -- including maps of food locations and information on potential nest sites from one brain to another -- using their intricate "waggle dance."

"Humans obviously evolved a much wider range of communication tools to express their thoughts, the most important being language," said Hoffecker, a fellow at CU's Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research. "Individual human brains within social groups became integrated into a neurologic Internet of sorts, giving birth to the mind."

While anatomical fossil evidence for the capability of speech is controversial, the archaeological discoveries of symbols coincides with a creative explosion in the making of many kinds of artifacts. Abstract designs scratched on mineral pigment show up in Africa about 75,000 years ago and are widely accepted by archaeologists as evidence for symbolism and language. "From this point onward there is a growing variety of new types of artifacts that indicates a thoroughly modern capacity for novelty and invention."

The roots of the mind and the super-brain lie deep in our past and are likely tied to fundamental aspects of our evolution like bipedalism and making stone tools, he said. It was from the making of tools that early humans first developed their ability to project complex thoughts or mental representations outside the individual brain -- our own version of the honeybee waggle dance, Hoffecker said.

While crude stone tools crafted by human ancestors beginning about 2.5 million years ago likely were an indirect consequence of bipedalism -- which freed up the hands for new functions -- the first inklings of a developing super-brain likely began about 1.6 million years ago when early humans began crafting stone hand axes, thought by Hoffecker and others to be one of the first external representations of internal thought.

Ancient hand axes achieved "exalted status" as mental representations since they bear little resemblance to the natural objects they were made from -- generally cobbles or rock fragments. "They reflect a design or mental template stored in the nerve cells of the brain and imposed on the rock, and they seemed to have emerged from a strong feedback relationship among the hands, eyes, brains and the tools themselves," he said.

The emerging modern mind in Africa was marked by a three-fold increase in brain size over 3-million-year-old human ancestors like Lucy, thought by some to be the matriarch of modern humans. Humans were producing perforated shell ornaments, polished bone awls and simple geometric designs incised into lumps of red ochre by 75,000 years ago. "With the appearance of symbols and language -- and the consequent integration of brains into a super-brain -- the human mind seems to have taken off as a potentially unlimited creative force," he said.

The dispersal of modern humans from Africa to Europe some 50,000 to 60,000 years ago provides a "minimum date" for the development of language, Hoffecker speculated. "Since all languages have basically the same structure, it is inconceivable to me that they could have evolved independently at different times and places."

A 2007 study led by Hoffecker and colleagues at the Russian Academy of Sciences pinpointed the earliest evidence of modern humans in Europe dating back 45,000 years ago. Located on the Don River 250 miles south of Moscow, the multiple sites, collectively known as Kostenki, also yielded ancient bone and ivory needles complete with eyelets, showing the inhabitants tailored furs to survive the harsh winters.

The team also discovered a carved piece of mammoth ivory that appears to be the head of a small figurine dating to more than 40,000 years ago. "If that turns out to be the case, it would be the oldest piece of figurative art ever discovered," said Hoffecker, whose research at Kostenki is funded in part by the National Science Foundation.

The finds from Kostenki illustrate the impact of the creative mind of modern humans as they spread out of Africa into places that were sometimes cold and lean in resources, Hoffecker said. "Fresh from the tropics, they adapted to ice age environments in the central plain of Russia through creative innovations in technology."

Ancient musical instruments and figurative art discovered in caves in France and Germany date to before 30,000 years ago, he said. "Humans have the ability to imagine something in the brain that doesn't exist and then create it," he said. "Whether it's a hand axe, a flute or a Chevrolet, humans are continually recombining bits of information into novel forms, and the variations are potentially infinite."

While the concept of a human super-brain is analogous to social insects like bees and ants that collectively behave as a super-organism by gathering, processing and sharing information about their environment, there is one important difference, Hoffecker said. "Human societies are not super-organisms -- they are composed of people who are for the most part unrelated, and societies filled with competing individuals and families."

Since the emergence of the modern industrial world beginning roughly 500 years ago, creativity driven by the human super-brain has grown by leaps and bounds, from the invention of mechanical clocks to space shuttles. Powerful artificial intelligence could blur the differences between humans and computers in the coming centuries, he said.

Powerful artificial intelligence could blur the differences between humans and computers in the coming centuries, Hoffecker said.

Stephen Hawking agrees with Hoffecker. Although It has taken homo sapiens several million years to evolve from the apes, the useful information in our DNA, has probably changed by only a few million bits. So the rate of biological evolution in humans, Stephen Hawking points out in his Life in the Universe lecture, is about a bit a year.

"By contrast," Hawking says, "there are about 50,000 new books published in the English language each year, containing of the order of a hundred billion bits of information. Of course, the great majority of this information is garbage, and no use to any form of life. But, even so, the rate at which useful information can be added is millions, if not billions, higher than with DNA."

This means Hawking says that we have entered a new phase of evolution. "At first, evolution proceeded by natural selection, from random mutations. This Darwinian phase, lasted about three and a half billion years, and produced us, beings who developed language, to exchange information."

But what distinguishes us from our cave man ancestors is the knowledge that we have accumulated over the last ten thousand years, and particularly, Hawking points out, over the last three hundred.
"I think it is legitimate to take a broader view, and include externally transmitted information, as well as DNA, in the evolution of the human race," Hawking said.

In the last ten thousand years the human species has  been in what Hawking calls, "an external transmission phase," where the internal record of information, handed down to succeeding generations in DNA, has not changed significantly. "But the external record, in books, and other long lasting forms of storage," Hawking says, "has grown enormously. Some people would use the term, evolution, only for the internally transmitted genetic material, and would object to it being applied to information handed down externally. But I think that is too narrow a view. We are more than just our genes."

The time scale for evolution, in the external transmission period, has collapsed to about 50 years, or less.

Meanwhile, Hawking observes, our human brains "with which we process this information have evolved only on the Darwinian time scale, of hundreds of thousands of years. This is beginning to cause problems. In the 18th century, there was said to be a man who had read every book written. But nowadays, if you read one book a day, it would take you about 15,000 years to read through the books in a national Library. By which time, many more books would have been written."

But we are now entering a new phase, of what Hawking calls "self designed evolution," in which we will be able to change and improve our DNA. "At first," he continues "these changes will be confined to the repair of genetic defects, like cystic fibrosis, and muscular dystrophy. These are controlled by single genes, and so are fairly easy to identify, and correct. Other qualities, such as intelligence, are probably controlled by a large number of genes. It will be much more difficult to find them, and work out the relations between them. Nevertheless, I am sure that during the next century, people will discover how to modify both intelligence, and instincts like aggression."

If the human race manages to redesign itself, to reduce or eliminate the risk of self-destruction, we will probably reach out to the stars and colonize other planets. But this will be done, Hawking believes, with intelligent machines based on mechanical and electronic components, rather than macromolecules, which could eventually replace DNA based life, just as DNA may have replaced an earlier form of life.

The Daily Galaxy via via kurzweil.net and colorado.edu

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Comments

As I said in my book "The Plain Truth About God" animals are subject to external evolutionary change while we have gotten to the point where our evolution is internally driven. In other words we are the only species that goes out and makes change happen!

Far from simply blurring the difference between humanity and artificial intelligence. I think self replicating Ai would in fact surpass our human collective intelligence within a very short time of being developed. If they were allowed to advance and develop unchecked there is no limit to how much knowledge they could acquire. When you consider that they will most likely be some form of quantum computer intelligence. That prospect alone truly is staggering in terms of how advanced they could become over time. They would have all of our advantages when it comes to information gathering and none of our weaknesses.

I think Hawking is right. We are more than the sum or our parts. Clearly every time human beings build something we learn a little something from it. Collectively we can accomplish so much together. great article.

But can machines be creative? Art is an emotional response to life, shared externally. You can't program it.

What is you're DNA but a program designed to create a biological computer. The heart is you're engine. The blood vessels you're fuel pipes. You're skin is the exhaust system. The brain is the central computer controlling all the parts of the system. To say you could not create intuition, creativity, emotion in a program is really not correct. It's just a matter of how you structure the design behind it. What are all those things but responses to external stimuli. I see no reason why an Ai could not learn in the same way a baby does, by observing and reacting to its environment. I'm not saying the first attempt will be perfect, far from it in fact. It will take a generation or maybe 2 before it would be advanced enough to blur the lines between us in terms of our higher functions.

If you think about the technological advances of humans during the twentieth century you might surmise that there was a change in the brain which enabled such complex inventions as computers, nuclear arms, etc. But I believe we overlook "culture" (everything invented by man) as the driving force. So may it have happened 75,000 years ago. Recall the Neanderthals all over Western Europe, middle east and Asia had cave paintings, burials with objects, tools more advanced than the earlier homo erectus species....Culture evolved slowly but then gathered momentum and became exponential. Neanderthals had brains larger than ours, but of course we know nothing about their functional capacity. In any event, I don't think we can say with certainty that there was a change in brain DNA...it may be that culture builds on culture... and advances more rapidly as we come to comprehend the physical and chemical world.

@Lillian: Actually, the Neanderthals have never been proved to have produced art in the form of painted caves.

Recently, cave art in Spain, dated to 35,000 ago have been attributed to neanderthals. In any event, the transition from
Neanderthal to moderns is still murky.

My point was that once humans began to use their brains to produce artifacts, etc., there need not have been a change in DNA to make super-humans. Cultural discoveries are like extensions of the brain, and the knowledge is used to further
material evolution.


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