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Stephen Hawking: "We Should Look for Evidence of a Collision with Another Universe in Our Distant Past"


Some people hypothesise that what we call the universe may only be one of many. Is there any conceivable way that we could ever detect and study other universes if they exist? Is it even falsifiable? This was a key question the world's leading expert on the physics of the Universe was was asked in an interview with the BBC.

"Our best bet for a theory of everything is M-theory --an extension of string theory," Hawking continued. "One prediction of M-theory is that there are many different universes, with different values for the physical constants. This might explain why the physical constants we measure seem fine-tuned to the values required for life to exist."

It is no surprise that we observe the physical constants to be finely-tuned. If they weren't, we wouldn't be here to observe them. One way of testing the theory that we may be one of many universes would be to look for features in the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB) which would indicate the collision of another universe with ours in the distant past.

The circular patterns within the cosmic microwave background suggest that space and time did not come into being at the Big Bang but that our universe in fact continually cycles through a series of "aeons," according to University of Oxford theoretical physicist Roger Penrose, who says that data collected by NASA's WMAP satellite supports his idea of "conformal cyclic cosmology".

Penrose made the sensational claim that he had glimpsed a signal originating from before the Big Bang working with Vahe Gurzadyn of the Yerevan Physics Institute in Armenia. Penrose came to this conclusion after analyzing maps from the Wilkinson Anisotropy Probe (WMAP shown above and at bottom of page). These maps reveal the cosmic microwave background, believed to have been created just 300,000 years after the Big Bang and offering clues to the conditions at that time.

Penrose's finding runs directly counter to the widely accepted inflationary model of cosmology which states that the universe started from a point of infinite density known as the Big Bang about 13.7 billion years ago, expanded extremely rapidly for a fraction of a second and has continued to expand much more slowly ever since, during which time stars, planets and ultimately humans have emerged. That expansion is now believed to be accelerating due to a scientific X factor called dark energy and is expected to result in a cold, uniform, featureless universe.

Penrose, however, reports Physics World, takes issue with the inflationary picture "and in particular believes it cannot account for the very low entropy state in which the universe was believed to have been born – an extremely high degree of order that made complex matter possible. He does not believe that space and time came into existence at the moment of the Big Bang but that the Big Bang was in fact just one in a series of many, with each big bang marking the start of a new "aeon" in the history of the universe."

The core concept in Penrose's theory is the idea that in the very distant future the universe will in one sense become very similar to how it was at the Big Bang. Penrose says that "at these points the shape, or geometry, of the universe was and will be very smooth, in contrast to its current very jagged form.

This continuity of shape, he maintains, will allow a transition from the end of the current aeon, when the universe will have expanded to become infinitely large, to the start of the next, when it once again becomes infinitesimally small and explodes outwards from the next big bang. Crucially, he says, the entropy at this transition stage will be extremely low, because black holes, which destroy all information that they suck in, evaporate as the universe expands and in so doing remove entropy from the universe."

The foundation for Penrose's theory is found in the cosmic microwave background, the all-pervasive microwave radiation that was believed to have been created when the universe was just 300,000 years old and which tells us what conditions were like at that time.

The evidence was obtained by Vahe Gurzadyan of the Yerevan Physics Institute in Armenia, who analysed seven years' worth of microwave data from WMAP, as well as data from the BOOMERanG balloon experiment in Antarctica. Penrose and Gurzadyan say they have clearly identified concentric circles within the data – regions in the microwave sky in which the range of the radiation's temperature is markedly smaller than elsewhere.

The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation is the remnant heat from the Big Bang. This radiation pervades the universe and, if we could see in microwaves, it would appear as a nearly uniform glow across the entire sky. However, when we measure this radiation very carefully we can discern extremely faint variations in the brightness from point to point across the sky, called "anisotropy". These variations encode a great deal of information about the properties of our universe, such as its age and content.

The "Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe" (WMAP) mission has measured these variations and found that the universe is 13.7 billion years old, and it consists of 4.6% atoms, 23% dark matter, and 72% dark energy.

According to Penrose and Gurzadyan, as described in arXiv: 1011.3706, these circles allow us to "see through" the Big Bang into the aeon that would have existed beforehand. They are the visible signature left in our aeon by the spherical ripples of gravitational waves that were generated when black holes collided in the previous aeon.

The "Penrose circles" pose a huge challenge to inflationary theory because this theory says that the distribution of temperature variations across the sky should be Gaussian, or random, rather than having discernable structures within it.

Julian Barbour, a visiting professor of physics at the University of Oxford in an interview with Physics World, says that these circles would be "remarkable if real and sensational if they confirm Penrose's theory". They would "overthrow the standard inflationary picture", which, he adds, has become widely accepted as scientific fact by many cosmologists. But he believes that the result will be "very controversial" and that other researchers will look at the data very critically. He says there are many disputable aspects to the theory, including the abrupt shift of scale between aeons and the assumption, central to the theory, that all particles will become massless in the very distant future. He points out, for example, that there is no evidence that electrons decay.

Penrose and colleague Gurzadyn have answered the numerous critics who say that the circles do not contradict the standard model of  cosmology in follow up paper, published on arXiv. In the short article, they agree that the presence of circles in the CMB does not contradict the standard model of cosmology. However, the existence of “concentric families” of circles, they argue, cannot be explained as a purely random effect given the pure Gaussian nature of their original analysis. “It is, however a clear prediction of conformal cyclic cosmology,” reports Physics World.

Do these concentric circles shown below offer a glimpse of before the Big Bang? What do you think?


The Daily Galaxy via Physics World and arXiv: 1011.3706 and



Could inflation have done more than we know,
shortly after the Big Bang’s first salvo,
and created a dense matter halo
beyond the horizon where we can go?

Beyond the horizon that we can see,
is there a remote possibility
of a most massive field of gravity
that pulls the strings of our reality?

Perhaps it’s just dense matter that’s the source,
accelerating expansion perforce,
and not some new and mysterious force,
or change of gravity’s attractive course,
as though we are bound by a black hole’s skin,
that stretches space to surface dimension.

-- James Ph. Kotsybar

The cosmos, once conceived as a clockwork,
we now believe was begun with a Bang
that’s thought to have come from a quantum quirk
of uncertainty from which matter sprang.

The laws of physics, carefully described
from observations of cause and effect,
to which for generations we’ve subscribed,
have come into question as incorrect.

Determinism’s been made obsolete.
Probability’s the new ruling force.
Newton’s been shown to be incomplete,
and we’re no longer sure who to endorse,
since Einstein refused to get up and dance
with random dervishes spinning with chance.

-- James Ph. Kotsybar

Our universe may be embedded in
a bulk containing other bubble realms,
while we are just a hologram within.
The implication is what overwhelms.
Though this explains why gravity’s perverse,
our cosmos, then, is not the whole shebang.
Are we part of a frothy multi-verse
where one’s black hole is another’s Big Bang?
Is our universe the one that God meant
or just one result of experiment?

An interesting video about Prof. Hawking and discussion about his many impacts was shared recently at Perimeter. It's called "Stephen Hawking: Power of Ideas" and is worth checking out.

This coming from the same guy who outright denied the existence of aliens? This guy confuses the hell out of me.


Quote: “Penrose's finding runs directly counter to the widely accepted inflationary model of cosmology which states that the universe started from a point of infinite density known as the Big Bang about 13.7 billion years ago . . .”

AD: Of course everything in the Universe is cyclic. Not he Universe itself, but everything in the Universe. The very idea of a beginning is just an illusion based on several hypotheses that are based on a very restricted cosmic perception of the “gravity universe” and the linear time- and constants-measurement scales.

- It is very strange to see that modern scientist now are finding circumstantial evidences for the Cyclic Universe that our ancestors from all over the world have told about in their mythical stories of creation. (About high time too!)

From an image from December 20, 2010, shows the circular patterns in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). This image looks very much as a quadruple magnetic field as seen on the linked images below.

The CMB-image shows possibly how a huge area, but still jus a part, of a large electromagnetic circuit in the actual observable universe. “Outside” this huge area, other similar circuits surely can be found and these are not “other universes” but just another major circuit in the Universe.

Quadruple Magnetism Patterns:

- A remarkable look-alike ancient symbol here:

Further readings here:

The Milky Way Mythology and the Stories of Creation -

New Solar and Galaxy Formation Knowledge -

Ivar Nielsen
Natural Philosopher

So you still believed in a single Universe, Mr. Hawking? Clearly you haven't been watching Star Trek!

Pope John Paul II said not to look before the Big Bang because that's God's territory. Why are scientists doing Satan's bidding? Because they're AWESOME!

you guys are all nuts! there is so tiny amount of knowledge we are sure we are right about and the rest is SPECULATION! just because a lot of people agree does NOT make it true! things like the big bang an string theory and the inside of stars and black holes are just theorys and they are constantly being adjusted. yes, people will make them sound like they are the only truth till the speech circuit money runs out, but they know deep down inside they could be completely wrong. how many theorys do you remember that was wrong? most people will remember absolutely 0. some will remember a few. truth is thousands, right back to the moon being made of cheese. quit acting like a brainiac knows all that is knowable and following their every word. listen to what they are saying and think about it. agree if you want but accept it may be wrong still. and the more complicated the theory/item/idea the more chance that it will be tweeked for many many years. maybe even tweeked right out of the picture.

and ignore Ivar Nielsen! hes a nutcase!

Hahahaha JUST KIDDING! Ivar looks and thinks instead of waiting to be programmed. Doesnt make him righter or smarter, just a better thinker and someone who you could likley talk to for hours straight.


Gawking is right, and Hawking is likely loosing his marbles. Still, pretty sharp for 70 year old :-)

It is like some bacteria affecting understanding of quantum entanglement. Face it, regarding even the potential understanding of the finer points of the Universe whys and hows, out mental ability is just about there. Meanwhile, go ahead and speculate if it make you feel good.

The COSMOS WORKS IN CYCLES. There are many other UNIVERSES, may be with OPPOSITE LAWS and quality.

hawking is getting senile, and ivar neilsen needs a lobotomy

ROFL tingle
Ivar puts in 1000 times the interesting comments and statements than you. Guess if you cant beat them, try to diss them?

I was just watching a picture of a very large gas cloud being comsumed by a galaxy last week on Chandra Digest. The manner of the approximation and absorbtion of the cloud into one arm of the spiral galaxy triggered a thought that each spiral arm of a spiral galaxy is actually an attached galaxy after collision. I think that The Milky Way has 7/9 arms and that could mean that it constitutes of 7/9 merged galaxies. Thereby creating this large spital swirl. Possibily the mechanics of the collision of 2 galaxies have to be right. So maybe the galaxies do not just fuse into each in a Homogeneous manner but as galaxies collide i think that they result in becoming arms within the evolved galaxy. So the spiral nature of the galaxy consumend galay retains the whole or segments of the consumed galaxy as arms in the new evolved galaxy. So the number and size of the arms of the galaxy may give us the indicator of the number of galaxies consumed. But, what about the black holes at ethe centre of the galaxi.

It's surely one of countless sorts of form, space kind of understood from human point in terrestrial expressions I'm able to muster up. With respect from me human research of universe to continue with respect, please.

I remember being fascinated when the History Channel did an episode of M-Theory. However, it seems to me that M-Theory is simply religion scientists since there's no way to prove it one way or another... or is that just me?

Is it science? No, it's Hawking. Possibly he is the biggest story teller after Aesopus. The circles do not show anything accept high and low printed colors. The rest is made up by mister Ausopus.

Science is studying in an attempt to reach a conclusion, yes theory's are not proven fact, but they are the closest thing we have to truth. Whether you allow your faith to follow, is your own decision. If your reality does not allow you to comprehend, then it is not your fault, if you can understand that in the first place.

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