NASA's Hunt for the Milky Way's Most Massive Stars
Weekend Image: The Aquarius Stream --Remnant of a Dwarf Galaxy Devoured by the Milky Way

Is an Adjacent Universe Causing the Dark Flow of Hundred of Millions of Stars at the Edge of the Observable Universe? Or, Might It Be Something Else


Back in the Middle Ages, maps showed terrifying images of sea dragons at the boundaries of the known world. Today, scientists have observed strange new motion at the very limits of the known universe -- kind of where you'd expect to find new things, but they still didn't expect this.  A huge swathe of galactic clusters seem to be heading to a cosmic hotspot and nobody knows why.

The unexplained motion has hundreds of millions of stars dashing towards a certain part of the sky at over eight hundred kilometers per second.  Not much speed in cosmic terms, but most preferred cosmological models have things moving in all directions equally at the extreme edges of the universe.  Something that could make things aim for a specific spot on such a massive scale hasn't been imagined before. 

"The clusters show a small but measurable velocity that is independent of the universe's expansion and does not change as distances increase," says lead researcher Alexander Kashlinsky at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. "We never expected to find anything like this."

Kashlinsky calls this collective motion a "dark flow" in the vein of more familiar cosmological mysteries: dark energy and dark matter. "The distribution of matter in the observed universe cannot account for this motion," he says, keeping to the proven astrophysical strategy of calling anything we don't understand "dark."

Hot X-ray-emitting gas in a galaxy cluster scatters photons from the cosmic microwave background. Clusters don't precisely follow the expansion of space, so the wavelengths of scattered photons change in a way that reflects each cluster's individual motion.

This results in a minute shift of the microwave background's temperature in the cluster's direction. Astronomers refer to this change as the kinematic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect.

A related distortion, known as the thermal SZ effect, has been observed in galaxy clusters since the 1980s. But the kinematic version is less than one-tenth as strong and has not been detected in any cluster.

A black hole can't explain the observations -- objects would accelerate into the hole, while the NASA scientists see constant motion over a vast expanse of a billion light-years.  You have no idea how big that is. This is giant on a scale where it's not just that we can't see what's doing it, it's that the entire makeup of the universe as we understand it can't be right if this is happening.

Such discoveries force a whole new set of ideas onto the table which, even if they turn out to be wrong, are the greatest ways to advance science and our understanding of everything. One explanation that's already been offered is that our universe underwent a period of hyper-inflation early in its existence, and everything we think of as the vast and infinite universe is actually a small corner under the sofa of the real expanse of reality.  Which would be an amazing, if humbling, discovery.

Now, a new study from the University at Buffalo contradicts the dark flow theory, showing that exploding stars in different parts of the universe do not appear to be moving in sync. Working with data on 557 such stars, called supernovae, UB scientists deduced that while the supernovae closest to Earth all shared a common motion in one direction, supernovae further out were heading somewhere else. An article announcing the research results will appear in a forthcoming edition of the peer-reviewed Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics.

In 2008, a research team led by a NASA scientist announced a startling discovery: Clusters of galaxies far apart from one another appeared to be traveling in the same direction, contradicting as we pointed out above, the standard model of the universe -- which predicts that, as a whole, mass within our universe should flow randomly in all directions, relative to the background radiation of the cosmos.

The one-way "dark flow" that the NASA-led group discovered created a mystery. What could account for the unexpected motion?  Maybe another universe existed beyond the bounds of ours, dragging our stars ever closer through the pull of gravity.

Then again, maybe not. A new study from the University at Buffalo contradicts the dark flow theory, showing that exploding stars in different parts of the universe do not appear to be moving in sync.

Working with data on 557 such stars, called supernovae, UB scientists deduced that while the supernovae closest to Earth all shared a common motion in one direction, supernovae further out were heading somewhere else. The difference in motion became pronounced for stars 680 million or more light years away from Earth.

An article announcing the research results will appear in a forthcoming edition of the peer-reviewed Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics.

Though the findings disagree with the "dark flow" hypothesis, they coincide with the predictions of another model of the universe: Lambda-Cold Dark Matter, the standard model of cosmology.'

"Our result is boring, in a way, because it matches your expectation for the standard cosmological model," said UB physicist William Kinney. "If it turns out that the NASA team led by Alexander Kashlinsky is right, it would be exciting because there would be some crazy thing going on that nobody understood. There would have to be something very radical, like a big mass outside of our universe that's pulling on stuff inside our universe. That would be big news."

"But our data do not match theirs," Kinney continued. "With our study, we're muddying the water. It's not yet clear who is right. We have to do more figuring to build up a more detailed and accurate picture of the universe."

Kinney, an associate professor, completed the study on supernovae with De-Chang Dai, a UB postdoctoral researcher who has since joined the University of Cape Town, and Dejan Stojkovic, an assistant professor of physics at UB.

The supernova data the team used to complete their study came from the Union2 data set, which the Supernova Cosmology Project at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory released in 2010. Though Union2 incorporates astronomical observations from different telescopes and different times, the data set controls carefully for systematic bias and serves as a useful check for the possible presence of systematic errors in the work of Kashlinsky and others, Kinney said.

The Daily Galaxy via University at Buffalo and

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Up until about two days ago I had a pretty good working theory about all of this, but then I woke up this morning with an epiphany, and realized that it's just God fucking around with us!

Very interesting find!

Perhaps more answers will be found once we discover more about string theory.

A single god couldn't be intelligent enough to create some as diverse and beautiful as this existence. Let's not water down the beauty of our world with a preconceived notion of an all powerful being!

And let's not water down the complexities or set limitations on the universe with the limited knowledge of humans.

Human limits fall far short to those of the universe - yet many people tend not to notice.

I reckon it's next door's cat!

Its star clusters leaking into a parallel universe.

An atheist and a religious person can do science together, because religion is about a personal belief and science is simply an ongoing investigation of what is around us.

The evidence that something was askew in their model has been building up for a long time. They've known for decades we were headed in a particular direction in the cosmos. They determined that from the observation that the microwave background radiation was hotter in one direction than in the other. But with this discovery, I suspect that the idea that the universe is homogeneous, that it has no center, or that every point in the universe can be taken as the center, will have to be discarded. And that has implications for relativity, since relativity posits that you cannot talk about movement thru space in general. According to relativity, motion has no meaning except relative to other objects.

science just doesn't answer it all what made the stuff for the big bang what made all the particles and elements and energy and dark matter and dark energy and things like this god has to exist there is just no way around it maybe he isnt actively watching or maybe he is busy or maybe he isnt what we think but in the end something created the atoms the matter for all of this or for the big bang to say he is unreal and that life after death is unreal is foolishness cause science even states that energy can't be created or destroyed but somehow it was created and not by us and if it can't be destroyed we are a form of energy there has to be afterlife

This is only the proof that the human mind can not cope with the concept of infinity; unconsciously working within a virtual framework that limits understanding...

Allan, that's a pretty small god that you have conceived for the sole intent to deny it. Be careful you don't squish him under your shoe when you leave the house to buy milk.

Galactic Gamble
-- James Ph. Kotsybar

Despite entropy, evolution plods.
As random as the universe may seem,
Life trumps all the thermodynamic odds.
Complexity increases, in its scheme --
the organized gain it works to achieve --
possession of an intellect so vast
no single component can quite conceive
its present purpose or hope to forecast
its true intent or its ultimate aim.
It hazards chance, opposing chaos prime,
in the greatest ontological game
ever played, throwing dice in space and time,
displaying determination’s daring
to win against House Cosmos uncaring.

My theory is that objects as large as some galaxies cause a Magnetic type effect. Positive on one side & Negative on the other (Flat Spiral Galaxies) or a complex type of positive/negative in random directions for elliptical type galaxies.

Therefore some galaxies like ours and Andromeda are sucking together like a magnet as we are 2 flat type galaxies, while some galaxies are positioned to push away like negative/negative magnets would.

This way proves a vast universe of galaxies pushing away from each other or sucking in to each other depending on their position & form.

I also believe the universe is far larger than most scientists would think.

Rosetta Stone is proprietary language-learning software produced by Rosetta Stone;Ltd. Its title and its logo refer to the Rosetta Stone , an artifact inscribed in multiple languages that helped Jean-Fran?ois Champollion to decipher Egyptian hieroglyphics.
The Rosetta Stone software uses a combination of images, text, and sound, with difficulty levels increasing as the student progresses, in order to teach various vocabulary terms and grammatical functions intuitively, without drills or translation. They call this the Dynamic Immersion method;. The goal is to teach languages the way first languages are learned.Now,the Rosetta Stone;Ltd have several kinds of the Rosetta Stone language on sale,such as Rosetta Stone Spanish,Rosetta Stone German and Rosetta Stone Italian, these Rosetta Stone Languages are very popular now!

If dark flow was real and gravity was the force responsible then shouldn't the speed of the flow vary from the distance to whatever is attracting everything. So if the speed differences could be measured then the size and distance of the attract-or could be inferred?

The piece was inspired by the BBC documentary, Is everything we know about the universe wrong?

Does our Universe have a discernable trajectory before the Big Bang and will our expanding Universe eventually feed the creation of other Universes? Dark flow allows for the hypothetical mapping out of the former and the latter and is the basis for the rationale in forming the following proposition.

Investigation further afield than the Dark flow pull beyond The Great Attractor (Wiki, Dark flow) in the direction of the Centaurus and Hydra constellations is needed to gather vital information. If it is eventually possible to prove that light is gravitationally bending towards the latter point of reference, then we are inferring evidence for a new type of Black Hole. This new type of Black Hole would be super super massive (SSM black holes) in that it could have the potential of absorbing whole galaxies and they could also produce high energy jets similar to quasars.

Dark flow pull beyond The Great Attractor travels at a tangent to our Universe but we could equally say that our Universe is at a tangent to that dark flow. Therefore our Universe from this perspective is a dark flow being created by some other gravitational attraction. Gravitation, or gravity, is a natural phenomenon by which physical bodies attract with a force proportional to their mass.(Wiki, Gravitation). In order for there to be dark flow in either direction there must be, at the attracting end of it, a physical body with enough mass to do so such as the hypothetical SSM. Quasars can create jets of high energy that travel near the speed of light (Wiki, Quasars). If dark flow indicates galactic gravitational attraction by a SSM then could these also produce high energy jets but on a larger scale parallel to the increased size of a SSM?

Visualise high energy jets powered by accretion of material into SSMs and these propelled outwards at nearly the speed of light into an area of space with little density. The outcome would neatly fit the properties from after the Planck Epoch (Wiki, Big Bang) onwards. Therefore the Big Bang is possibly not a description of an event that suddenly started out of nothing but rather the incorporated continuation of a sequence of events before and after. Having at least the evidence for two SSMs, beyond the Great Attractor and our Universe, indicates that any coalescing jets forming a universe from a SSM would inevitably be caught up in the gravitational pull of another SSM accelerating its expansion. That all jets from the galactic accretions of SSMs occur is in itself an explanation of low density expanses in a universe. Matter and energy had been gravitationally attracted into higher densities leaving vacant other areas that can be filled in by SSM high energy jets. Whether high energy jets travelling from an SSM could reach an area of high density beckons further investigation. Each SSM is the focal point of a universe in itself, there being more than one according to the evidence from dark flow.

For a universe to be able to perceive itself chemical elements need to form to create life. From the point of view of life such as our species a universe is a chemical element making mechanism.

There is also the possibility that the SSM is spewing matter from an alternate universe using string theory. So the building blocks of life is entering our universe through another universe and the gravitational pull of dark flow is from SSM.

Anyway you look at it, it points to our universe is not being the only universe and that we're a part of a multi-universe. The next several years will be exciting in terms of discovery.

Possibly a parallel universe expanding at the expense of our universe.

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