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What Lies Beyond the Observable Hubble Universe? (Today's Most Popular)


Few theories qualify for Nobel laureate Niels Bohr's famous question more than the current Big Bang Theory of the origin of the Universe: "We are all agreed that your theory is crazy. The question that divides us is whether it is crazy enough to have a chance of being correct."

There is a growing body of data and theory which question whether the Universe may have begun with a Big Bang 13.75 billion years ago. Several leading cosmologists, such as Sean Carroll of CalTech and Neil Turok of Cambridge University challenge the prevailing model of a "Big Bang" and believe that in the future we will only look back in wonder at how anyone could have believed in a creation event which was refuted by so much evidence. 

The origin of the Big Bang (that is, the state of "existence" which resulted in a Big Bang) is a mathematically obscure state --- a "singularity" of zero volume that contained infinite density and infinite energy. Why this singularity existed, how it originated, and why it exploded has led many scientists to question and challenge the very foundations of the Big Bang theory. 

It has been pointed out that an accelerated expansion limited to the most distant regions of the known universe, is incompatible with an explosive origin, but instead is indicative of an attractive force --- a "universe-in-mass" black hole whose super-gravity is affecting red shifts and illumination --- creating the illusion of a universe which is accelerating as it speeds away, when instead the stars closest to the hole are speeding faster toward their doom. Other scientists observe that the interpretation of red shifts as supporting a Big Bang, is also flawed and lacking validity. Some experts believe that there is little evidence to support the belief that red shifts are accurate measures of distance or time; that they are so variable and affected by so many factors that estimates of age, time, and distance can vary by up to 3 billion years following repeated measurements of the same star over just a few years.

Although the "Big Bang" is often presented as if it is proven fact, there is a wealth of data, including recent revelations of the several space probes and findings in fundamental physics, which possibly tell a different story.

One of the first problems are found in the Large Scale Structures in the Universe. In recent years, there have been a number of very serious challenges to the current theory of cosmic evolution and the belief the universe began just 13.7 billion years ago. The existence of these "Superclusters", "Great Walls" and "Great Attractors" could have only come to be organized and situated in their present locations and to have achieved their current size in a universe which is at least 80 billion to 250 billion years in age. The largest superclusters --- for example, the  "Coma" --- extend up to 100 Mpc!

In 1986, Brent Tully of the University of Hawaii reported detecting superclusters of galaxies 300 million light years (mly) long and 100 mly thick - stretching out about 300 mly across. At the speeds at which galaxies are supposed to be moving, it would require 80 billlion years to create such a huge complex of galaxies.

In 1989 a group led by John Huchra and Margaret J. Geller at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics discovered "The Great Wall", a series of galaxies lined up and creating a "wall" of galaxies 500 million light years (mly) long, 200 mly wide, and 15 mly thick. This superstructure would have required at least 100 billion years to form.

A team of the British, American, and Hungarian astronomers have reported even larger structures. As per their findings, the universe is crossed by at least 13 'Great Walls', apparent rivers of galaxies 100Mpc long in the surveyed domain of 7 billion light years. They found galaxies clustered into bands spaced about 600 million light years apart. The pattern of these clusters stretches across about one-fourth of the diameter of the universe, or about seven billion light years. This huge shell and void pattern would have required nearly 150 billion years to form, based on their speed of movement, if produced by the standard Big Bang cosmology.

Sloane_9, The "Sloan Great Wall" of galaxies as detected by the Sloan Digital Survey, has earned the distinction of being the largest observed structure in the Universe. It is 1.36 billion light years long and 80% longer than the Great Wall discovered by Geller and Huchra. It runs roughly from the head of Hydra to the feet of Virgo. It would have taken at least 250 billion years to form.

Then there is the problem of gravity. "Hubble length" Universe, which consists of those galaxies and stars which can be observed by current technology, appears, therefore, to be organized as titanic walls and clusters of galaxies separated by a collection of giant bubble-like voids. The Great Walls are far too large and massive to have been formed by the mutual gravitational attraction of its member galaxies alone.

Based on the cosmological principle, which is one of the cornerstones of the Big Bang model, cosmologists predicted the distribution of matter to be homogeneous throughout the universe, implying thereby that the distribution of the galaxies would be essentially uniform. There would be no large scale clusters of galaxies or great voids in space. Instead, contrary to the "Big Bang" universe, we exist in a very "lumpy" cosmos.

Many of the world's leading physicists believe we are entering  a "golden age" of cosmological discoveries. Astronomers working on the WMAP mission stunned the scientific community with their announcement that the first generation stars in the universe were surprisingly born just after 200 million years of the Big Bang birth of the cosmos. The age of the universe has been steadily pushed backwards in time, from 2 billion year to 8 billion after it was determined the Earth was 4.6 billion years in age, and now the estimates are 13.75 billion years.

The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), successor to the HST with ten times the light-gathering power due to be launched in 2014, may well detect ever more distant galaxies. Likewise, the ultra-high resolution radio telescopes such as Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) in Chile which is to become operational in 2012, will be peering still deeper into the universe, and probably pushing the hypothetical Big Bang further backward in time as ever more distant galaxies are detected.

Casey Kazan via

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Image credit: stellefilanti's Flickr photostream


American Astronomical Society (2010). Jan. 6, 2010, at the 215th meeting of the American Astronomical Society in Washington, D.C.


Great stuff so it looks as though, Fred Hoyle was right all the time..!!!!!!

Obvious.... What?

Unless something happened during the period of 'inflation' that we don't yet know about it seems the 13.75 billion year age is in jeopardy

the Big Bang acolytes are making It up as they go along.

btw, a GREAT article, can we have more like this please :-)

Is it just me or does the content of the article have next to nothing to do with the headline?

Very interesting. It seems that there are other forces at work, if we are to continue to believe the big bang theory.

It is rumoured that a lot of information about findings on the moon has been classified by the Americans. In 1988 human footprints on the lunar surface was unveiled by a noted Chinese official who was a member of the nation’s space programme. It was stated by the said official that such information has been received from a reliable source and accused the Americans for concealing such fact. Such photos were from August 3rd 1969 that is two weeks after Armstrong and Aldrin stepped on the lunar surface i.e. on July 20th 1969.

at the end we will get to the conclusion that a Big and white bearded guy called God did everything, and those walls are the bricks of his house lol

no really, we have to break our own paradigms, we know to little about many things and the only way to understand a little more is to use a solid logic.

very correct arguments, the bang theory isn't nothing more than theory whats matching with nothing

News of the death of the "Big Bang Theory" has been greatly exaggerated.

Actually the age of the universe has been steadily pushed forwards in time in the last several decades. For awhile in the later half of the 20th century it was believed to be closer to 20 billion years old. The Hubble telescope and other technology have shortened the age estimate.

It's amazingly large... It's hard to wrap your head around, but yet looking threw Hubbles eyes we see thousands of Universes that seem to go on forever.

It would be interesting to hear what Steven Hawking thinks about this story, and what his view would be.

In AWT the universe appears like landscape under the haze. We cannot see larger portion of Universe, but if we would move from our place, we could see another portions of Universe. The appearance of the most distant areas of Universe is determined with laws of our own geometry, so that this newly Universe shouldn't differ very much from known parts of it.

My ship can make the Coma run in less than 12 parsecs.

Could it be that with the black hole we live in, feeds on material in another universe sucking into ours, more matter into creation in our universe at different times.

No one, of at least this age could ever know

I get chills every time I see these deep field photos. Yes the big bang theory is a theory. However, we can see and calculate energy moving away from a fixed point from our perspective. Its always interesting to me how people want to decipher origin of matter. Why? usually to give perspective if there is a God or not. It’s an intrinsic belief built into our DNA. But why? Why this great compulsion to find origin? There is no beginning. There is no end. It just is.

It’s a concept our earthly minds are not capable of grasping. We move forward in linear time. We see transformation all around us. But those are just different positioning of matter. Therefore we assume there must be a point of beginning. We are structured to think in this way because the laws of our reality show action reaction. We are born, progress, “die”. We assume forward movement through linear time because we have been subjected to physicality’s and our minds are programmed to have memory. However, we can also think forward. You have the capability to project actions in your mind a minute, day, year, ahead of this point in time. Thus the mind will generate the thought of biological aging and a rule, that you can’t progress past a certain point without death. This is clearly wrong. All matter takes on new forms and is restructured according to various rules.

Generate thought without allowing your body to age. You will find you can travel forward, backwards, without consequence. You are only limited by your mind. Those thoughts are energy. Now, that thought you just had occurred in a space within your mind. Did the matter disappear? No. Is the matter still there? Yes. The energy is eternal. It is without form, but still there. Why? Because matter only has meaning with thought to give it reality. It only has origin, if a mind deems it so. The two can only exist because the two, give both reality. Matter can’t have a beginning because it can only come into reality if a mind perceives it. You want to perceive a big bang point of origin. This is clearly the wrong path. It is just energy reconstituting itself. You are bound by rules of linear time. Linear time only exists because you have accepted rules of aging. If you roll a ball down a hill does it move forward in linear time? Is it not matter reacting with other matter? Only you have created the illusion of time.

Origin cannot exist because matter never dissipates it only takes on a new form. That form appears to us as blue light, red light spectrum. We calculate movement as time from our perspective. This is not correct. It is energy looking at and perceiving other forms of energy. Again the two can’t exist without one another. E does not equal MC squared. Thought & Energy = matter = to infinity in conjunction with various speeds of motion parallel to mass.

Priti, great comment. quantum perspective of the Universe.

I would that anything could have happened.

All we are really doing is just speculating about the current age and origins of our universe. As our knowledge and technology advances, we will still know little.

i want a picture with all those walls, and i will figure it. :)

Origin of the Universe will remain a mystery for science to end in it. Dark matter and most fundamental particle also belong to the same category. Let us all continue our efforts by widening our minds to maximise overlap with cosmic mind. Answers wil come to us from outside our brain/ intellect.

No earthly being really knows what lies beyond Hubbles sight. We have much exploration to do before we can even have meaningful speculation. Great effort but much work to do!

"Matter can’t have a beginning because it can only come into reality if a mind perceives it."

So in a nut shell if a tree falls in a forest and no one is there, does it make a sound.....But wait it can't fall or make a sound because without someone being there to think it, it is not there in the first place or falling, certainly not making sound!!

And yes I know you are using Quantum logic. Which makes no sense at all in the reality we are in. To a Buddhist monk maybe. Life is just a smoke and mirrors show I guess. Or just a thought. But who is the thinker of the thought? The One thinker that is thinking? Or having this horrible/wonderful nightmare/pleasent dream we call existence? Just curious if you realy have it all figured out yet....One thought to another that is.

But what about the micro-bacteria on the trees, or the animals living in the forest. Human life is nothing but apart of nature and we are nothing special then the bacteria that grows on trees. We have the ability to understand how things work though and can change the future which some don't have that option. and if a tree falls in the forest and no one there to hear it. It's nothing but the sound of nature running it's course and there's nothing you can do about it.

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