The formation of the Rocky Mountains in Colorado has puzzled scientists for decades. Some 600 miles inland and far removed from the nearest tectonic plate, the only comparable inland mountain range is the Himalaya, which were formed by the collision of the Indian plate with the Eurasian
"But there really was no India slamming into North America," said Craig Jones, a research fellow of the Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES) and a professor of geological sciences at the University of Colorado at Boulder. "Just how the Rockies have formed is an enigma."
"Pierre Shale has this nasty tendency to bow up people's basements," Jones said. "Why more than a mile of this stuff was dumped into this area has been puzzling."
Previously scientists believed that the oceanic plate subducting - moving under - North America rose to rub against the continent's bottom all the way from the ocean to Colorado. The theory was this action pushed the landmass into mountains much like a rug piles up underfoot, said Jones. But the hypothesis just doesn't explain the facts, he said. "That model predicted removal of material that is still found to lie underneath California and Arizona," he said. "That in and of itself was unsatisfying."
The new model hinges on an unusually thick lithosphere – the stiff part of the Earth's surface that make up the tectonic plates – under Wyoming. The protrusion of this keel into more fluid mantle flowing below, created a suction that pulled down Southern Wyoming and Colorado and formed a basin, Jones said. This basin, or hole, in which Pierre Shale built up, amplified mountain-building forces far inland and forced the formation of the Rockies, he said.
"A huge basin develops and all of a sudden these mountains come rocketing out of it," Jones added. "We end up with the counter-intuitive visage of mountains rising up out of a hole. "
The hypothesis, if confirmed, could not only unravel the geological origin of the Rockies, but could also illuminate the mechanisms that have led to mountain ranges worldwide. "We are adding a new collection of processes that can control how mountain belts develop that previously haven't really been appreciated," Jones said. "Considering these processes might explain other puzzling mountain belts."
The Daily Galaxy via University of Colorado at Boulder