The "Hubble Effect" -A Radical Transformation of Our View of the Universe
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February 10, 2011

The "Hubble Effect" -A Radical Transformation of Our View of the Universe

Hubble-text

 "Equipped with his five senses, man explores the universe around him and calls the adventure Science. At the last dim horizon, we search among ghostly errors of observations for landmarks that are scarcely more substantial. The search will continue. The urge is older than history. It is not satisfied and it will not be oppressed. The history of astronomy is a history of receding horizons."

Edwin Hubble -Astronomer

The Hubble Space Telescope, which has so radically changed and enlarged our picture and understanding of the cosmos and our place in it, is a cooperative project of NASA and ESA (European Space Agency), put into orbit in 1990 600 kilometers above the earth, allowing an unrivaled, undisturbed view into deep space.

During the past three years alone, the Hubble has delivered a goldmine of discoveries: from the mapping of cosmic-web of dark matter, to rich tapestries of evolving deep-space galaxies, to the very dawn of galaxies using mankind's deepest optical view of the universe, to evidence for Dark Energy in the young universe from Hubble Ultra Deep Field, to compelling evidence of monster black holes at the centers of galaxies.

Not by accident, the space-born telescope is named after one of the most fascinating men in the history of science. Born in 1889, ten years after Einstein (of whom he had little knowledge), few greats have had more effect on our knowledge of the cosmos than Edwin Hubble. A naturally-gifted track star, and scholar, the Missouri-born Hubble spent his life following a doctorate in astronomy from the University of Chicago answering two of the most fundamental and profound questions about our universe: how big is it, and how old?

When Hubble moved to California in  1919 to take up a position at the Mount Wilson Observatory near Los Angles, little was know about the size and age of the universe. The number of known galaxies at the time he first looked out to the cosmos from Mt Wilson was exactly one: the Milky Way. The Milky Way was thought to embrace the entire cosmos with everything else, distant puffs of celestial gas.

Hubble's great breakthrough came in 1923 when with a fresh eye he showed that a distant cloud of that peripheral celestial gas in the Andromeda Constellation known as M31 wasn't a gas cloud, but a maze of brilliant stars, a "nebulae" (Latin for "cloud") -a galaxy a 100,000 light years across and at least 900,000 light years distant from Earth.

This discovery led to his 1924 research paper "Cephids in Spiral Nebulae" (Hubble's term for galaxy) showing that the universe -which we now know houses some 130 billion galaxies- was made up of not just the Milky Way, but a myriad of "island universes," many far more distant and larger.

Hubble then turned to the next question of equally cosmic proportions,just how big is the universe, and made an equally striking discovery: that all the galaxies except for our local cluster are moving away from us at a speed and distance that are nearly proportional. In short, the more distant the galaxy, the faster it was moving.

The concept of an expanding universe destroyed the old, longstanding notion of a static steady-state universe, the wonder of which Stephen Hawking has exclaimed, was that it wasn't obvious before that a static universe would have collapsed in upon itself.

Hubble's ignorance of Einstein's General Theory of Relativity led to his nor being able to connect the dots between a universe that was expanding evenly in all directions (the "Hubble Constant") to a geometrical starting point, a "primeval atom, a Big Bang. That answer came several decades later with the discovery of cosmic background radiation from a hissing, constant, uniform low-frequency radio signal at a Bell Labs facility in rural New Jersey.

The Hubble image at top of the page shows the brilliant streamers of gas, dust, and stars, as the Antennae galaxies collide in a cosmic pas de deux that began merging hundreds of millions of years ago, creating billions of new stars.


Posted by Casey Kazan.

Comments

Simply amazing!

The Hubble telescope marvels me everytime I see a new image from it.

I was I could get my hands on optics that powerful!

Love the videos, guys!

GREAT PICTURES - WRONG COSMOLOGY

Hubble has given us great pictures - a pity though that the scientists came up with the idiotic and idea of Big Bang.
The "Hubble constant" is not constant at all, and therefore they misjudged the cosmological distances.
The supposed acceleration of the Universe is caused by the fact that the Universe is electric and sometime the movements in the Universe goes inwards in the magnetic fields which give a logical accelerating speed.
Big Bang is a great mistake. The Cosmic Microwave Background has always been and will always be. Everything IN the Universe changes eternally between contraction and expansion; acceleration and deceleration, formation of matter and formation of light. It is NOT the Universe itself that changes, but everything IN the Universe.

Natural Philosopher
Ivar Nielsen

Just wait for Chapeter Two!!!!!! see below

The James Webb Space Telescope (sometimes called JWST) will be a large infrared telescope with a 6.5-meter primary mirror. Launch is planned for no sooner than 2014. The Webb will be the premier observatory of the next decade, serving thousands of astronomers worldwide. It will study every phase in the history of our Universe, ranging from the first luminous glows after the Big Bang, to the formation of solar systems capable of supporting life on planets like Earth, to the evolution of our own Solar System. Webb was formerly known as the "Next Generation Space Telescope" (NGST); it was renamed in Sept. 2002 after a former NASA administrator, James Webb.
Webb is an international collaboration between NASA, the European Space Agency (ESA), and the Canadian Space Agency (CSA). The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is managing the development effort. The prime contractor is Northrop Grumman; the Space Telescope Science Institute will operate Webb after launch.

Several innovative technologies have been developed for Webb. These include a folding, segmented primary mirror, adjusted to shape after launch; ultra-lightweight beryllium optics; detectors able to record extremely weak signals, microshutters that enable programmable object selection for the spectrograph; and a cryocooler for cooling the mid-IR detectors to 7K. The long-lead items, such as the beryllium mirror segments and science instruments, are under construction. All mission enabling technologies were demonstrated by January 2007. In July 2008 NASA confirmed the Webb project to proceed into its implementation phase, and the project conducted a major mission review in March 2010.

There will be four science instruments on Webb: the Near InfraRed Camera (NIRCam), the Near InfraRed Spectrograph (NIRSpec), the Mid-InfraRed Instrument (MIRI), and the Fine Guidance Sensor Tunable Filter Camera (FGS-TFI) . Webb's instruments will be designed to work primarily in the infrared range of the electromagnetic spectrum, with some capability in the visible range. It will be sensitive to light from 0.6 to 27 micrometers in wavelength.

Webb has four main science themes: The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization, The Assembly of Galaxies, The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems, and Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life.

http://www.jwst.nasa.gov/about.html

"we search among ghostly errors of observations for landmarks that are scarcely more substantial."

wow... I would make an argument but... wow. Gotta appreciate good wordplay like that. That's the reason it's so hard to argue with Isaac Asimovs ideas, because he just says it sooooo well! I'm gonna have to look up more stuff that Hubble wrote now!

Ivar, you're crazy.

It's a nice place to share my thoughts. I'm willing to stick around here and watch it grow. As i also want to learn how to grow mine.


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