New Discovery: Prehistoric Body Clock in Humans Same as That in Algae
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January 28, 2011

New Discovery: Prehistoric Body Clock in Humans Same as That in Algae

Circadian_p090528_01asq

The mechanism that controls the internal 24-hour clock of all forms of life from human cells to algae has been identified by scientists at the Universities of Cambridge and Edinburgh. The circadian clock arose early in the evolution of life. Its purpose is traditionally thought to enable organisms in adapting to the cycle of day and night. Recently, the vast extent and importance of circadian regulation has come to be more fully realized. In fact, research suggests that nearly all behaviors and physiology are somewhat controlled by the process.

Not only does the research provide important insight into health-related problems linked to individuals with disrupted clocks – such as pilots and shift workers – it also indicates that the 24-hour circadian clock found in human cells is the same as that found in algae and dates back millions of years to early life on Earth.

Two new studies out today in the journal Nature from the Universities of Cambridge and Edinburgh give insight into the circadian clock which controls patterns of daily and seasonal activity, from sleep cycles to butterfly migrations to flower opening.

One study, from the University of Cambridge's Institute of Metabolic Science, has identified 24-hour rhythms in red blood cells. This is significant because circadian rhythms have always been assumed to be linked to DNA and gene activity, but – unlike most of the other cells in the body – red blood cells do not have DNA.

 "We know that clocks exist in all our cells; they're hard-wired into the cell. Imagine what we'd be like without a clock to guide us through our days. The cell would be in the same position if it didn't have a clock to coordinate its daily activities," said Akhilesh Reddy, from the University of Cambridge and lead author of the study.

"The implications of this for health," he added, "are manifold. We already know that disrupted clocks – for example, caused by shift-work and jet-lag – are associated with metabolic disorders such as diabetes, mental health problems and even cancer. By furthering our knowledge of how the 24-hour clock in cells works, we hope that the links to these disorders – and others – will be made clearer. This will, in the longer term, lead to new therapies that we couldn't even have thought about a couple of years ago."

The Cambridge team incubated purified red blood cells from healthy volunteers in the dark and at body temperature, and sampled them at regular intervals for several days. They then examined the levels of biochemical markers – proteins called peroxiredoxins – that are produced in high levels in blood and found that they underwent a 24-hour cycle. Peroxiredoxins are found in virtually all known organisms.

A further study, by scientists working together at the Universities of Edinburgh and Cambridge, and the Observatoire Oceanologique in Banyuls, France, found a similar 24-hour cycle in marine algae, indicating that internal body clocks have always been important, even for ancient forms of life.

The researchers found the rhythms by sampling the peroxiredoxins in algae at regular intervals over several days. When the algae were kept in darkness, their DNA was no longer active, but the algae kept their circadian clocks ticking without active genes. Scientists had thought that the circadian clock was driven by gene activity, but both the algae and the red blood cells kept time without it.

Andrew Millar of the University of Edinburgh's School of Biological Sciences, who led the study, said: "This groundbreaking research shows that body clocks are ancient mechanisms that have stayed with us through a billion years of evolution. They must be far more important and sophisticated than we previously realised. More work is needed to determine how and why these clocks developed in people – and most likely all other living things on earth – and what role they play in controlling our bodies."

Elsewhere, another earlier study supports the suggestion that the function of ALL genes in mammals is based on circadian rhythms. This new research disproves the current theory that only about 10 percent of genes are affected by “nature's clock."

While scientists have long understood that circadian rhythms regulate many behaviors, this research indicates that daily rhythm dominates all life functions, particularly metabolism. The study presents oscillation as a very basic property of all genes in human and other mammals, as opposed to being a special function of a few particular genes, as previously believed.

"When we standardize genes onto a common scale that measures levels of expression, we could not find a single gene that did not oscillate," Colorado State University researcher Andrey Ptitsyn said.

Using advanced computer algorithms, Ptitsyn, was able to establish a baseline oscillation in over 98% of all genes. The vast majority of genes were previously not known to change their expression level in a daily cycle. Older studies may have inadvertently collected skewered information as well, as some of these oscillating genes have been used as a stable reference platform in past gene expression studies.

A better understanding of oscillation properties in the genes involved with metabolism is essential to scientific progress in terms of understanding how genes interact with and regulate health and disease. However, a better understanding of how our genes function should increasingly help individuals on practical level, as well.

"Anyone who diets, for example, knows you shouldn't eat late, and now we are getting closer to understanding why exactly," said Ptitsyn. "We discovered that all genes have a significant change in pattern of activity—or expression—throughout the day. Every pathway of gene expression is affected by circadian rhythms, and the timing of the rhythms from each group of genes that are synchronized is important."

Ptitsyn also discovered alternative short and long copies of some genes oscillating in the opposite phase. These genes are essential components of leptin signaling system, which is responsible for the sensation of satiety (feeling full) after eating. The oscillating pattern varies in different organs and determines the effect of leptin on regulation of the energy balance. Better understanding gene oscillation may provide researchers with clues for developing ways to treat people who chronically overeat, for example.

Ptitsyn discovered that because gene activity oscillates in a "finely orchestrated" system, gene expression is impacted by daylight and darkness, or the lack of either. The research revealed that when exposed to a constant state of dim light or darkness, the groups of genes that typically oscillate together—such as genes responsible for the function of an organ or a specific tissue—are chaotic under this state and no longer function as a group, although they continue to oscillate in this chaotic state.

Ptitsyn says, "It's like a conductor walking away from an orchestra during a performance; each musician continues to play, gradually going out of key with the others."

Similar future research may lend further insights into the importance of light and darkness exposure and how to maximize body functioning.

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The Daily Galaxy via University of Cambridge

Comments

Circadian Schmircadian


I.
"Dispel Some Figments Of 2010 Science Imagination"
http://pulse.yahoo.com/_2SF3CJJM5OU6T27OC4MFQSDYEU/blog/articles/245540

"Sleep is inherent for life via the RNAs, the primal Earth ORGANISMS formed and active ONLY under direct sunlight in pre-metabolism genesis era."


II.
Circadian Rhythm:
Genes Are Organisms, Not Molecular Contraptions
Henis Dov
Jul 03, 2008
http://www.physorg.com/news116687712.html


A. "Molecular Basis And Regulation Of Circadian Rhythms In Plants"
http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2008-07/asop-pit062408.php


B. A mechanisms of energy absorption, by which archae genes became and function as active energy packages, i.e. became living organisms:
http://www.physorg.com/news115053032.html


C. Chromosomes coil more tightly during the day and relax at night.
http://www.physorg.com/news114872572.html


D. My elsewhere suggestions re the origin of Circadian Rhythm applies neatly in the above cases. I posit that the mechanism involved in the absorption of energy by the archae genes is the mechanism of phasing of RNA-type olygomers into replicating primal Earth organisms, individual independent genes. This phasing from chemicals to living organisms was the genesis of Earth's biosphere.

Science will comprehend one day that genes are primal and genomes are evolved, organisms.

Circadian rhythm is an innate gene-genome characteristic, inborn-brought-about at the energetic conditions during the genesis of genes in the process of phasing from chemical olygomers to replicating life, to living genes which are base life energy packages.

For the archaic genes, parents of all Earth's Life, direct sunlight was the only source of energy, and it was available to them at different times of the day in accordance with their location on the then Earth...


Dov Henis
(comments from 22nd century)

03.2010 Updated Life Manifest
http://www.the-scientist.com/community/posts/list/54.page#5065
Cosmic Evolution Simplified
http://www.the-scientist.com/community/posts/list/240/122.page#4427
"Gravity Is The Monotheism Of The Cosmos"
http://www.the-scientist.com/community/posts/list/260/122.page#4887
Evolution, Natural Selection, Derive From Cosmic Expansion
http://darwiniana.com/2010/09/05/the-question-reductionists-fear/

The meddling with the human natural clock should be stopped. The artificial one hour back and forth shuttling is damaging to human nature.

Quote: "The mechanism that controls the internal 24-hour clock of all forms of life from human cells to algae has been identified by scientists at the Universities of Cambridge and Edinburgh".

WOW! Are humans really made of og and in connection with the natures creative electrical and magnetic rhythms?

They just could have asked all native peoples all over the world.

INTELLIGENT CELLS AND GENES
BTW: Genes and cells are not separated from the microcosmic; social and macrocosmic surroundings of a human being.
Read more her from Bruce T. Lipton´s work on this topic:
http://www.brucelipton.com/

Sun = God.
Sun rise you rise.
Sun sets you set for sleep.
Its the one that awakes you. Gives your spirits energy.
No sun, you feel bored and tired. Sun shines, you feel energetic.
Earth is part of the Sun, It is a star at heart. A fiery core which collected space materials for a billion years which has now become our Mother Earth.

3rra

It warps my mind to think about the amount of research that goes into a study like this...

More and more, I find out that I am very similar to algae...

My mother in law would like her body clock reset. Go algae. Anything to make her happy and calm.

Another study published in the same issue of nature found circadian rhythms (molecular clock) in red blood cells (which have no DNA). This shows that DNA is not necessary to regulate circadian rhythms. The algae finding and the red blood cell finding are extremely cool and totally rock the foundations of biology!

I always visit your blog and retrieve everything you post here but I never commented but today when I saw ...

Again, Correct Some Figments Of Science Imagination
http://pulse.yahoo.com/_2SF3CJJM5OU6T27OC4MFQSDYEU/blog/articles/273273?listPage=index&bb=0

1. Dark energy and matter YOK. Per E=Total[m(1 + D)] all the energy and matter of the universe are accounted for.
Adopt space-massdistance concept, mass-to-enrgy reconversion.

2. Higgs Particle YOK. Mass forms below some value of the above D.

3. Galactic clusters formed by conglomeration?
Galactic clusters formed by Big-Bang's dispersion, evidenced by their Newtonian behaviour including expansion acceleration.

4. The universe expansion is fueled by the mass-to-enrgy reconversion. Eventually, as expansion will slow down, will run out of massfuel, gravity will overcome expansion and initiate empansion back to singularity. The universe is a cyclic array of energy-mass dualism, between all-energy and all-mass poles, under omnipresent gravity.

5. Natural Selection is a trait of organisms, life?
No. Natural selection is ubiquitous for ALL mass formats, all spin arrays. It derives from the expansion of the universe. All mass formats, regardless of size and type, from black holes to smallest particles, strive to increase their constrained energy in attempt to postpone their own reconversion to energy, to the energy that fuels cosmic expansion.

6. Life is an enigma?
Life is just another type of mass array, a self-replicating mass array. Earth life is a replicating RNAs mass. It has always been and still is an RNA world. ALL Earth's organisms are evolved RNAs, evolved for maintaining-enhancing Earth's biosphere, for prolonging RNAs survival.

7. Cells are Earth-life's primal organisms?
NO. Earth's life day one was the day on which RNA began replicating. RNAs, genes, are ORGANISMS. And so are their evolved templates, (RNA and DNA) genomes, ORGANISMS, as evidenced by life's chirality and by life's sleep.

8. Circadian Schmircadian sleep origin?
Sleep is inherent for life via the RNAs, the primal Earth ORGANISMS originated and originally active only under direct sunlight, in their pre-metabolism genesis era.

9. Epigenetics are heritable gene functions changes not involving changes in DNA sequence?
The "heritable or enduring changes" are epiDNAtics, not epigenetics. Alternative splicing is not epigenetics, even if/when not involving alteration of the DNA sequence. Earth life is an RNA world.

10.Genetics drive biology and culture modifications?
NO. It is culture that modifies genetics, not genetics that modifies culture. Culture modifies genetics simply via the evolutionary natural selection process of the RNA ORGANISMS. Likewise many natural genetic changes are due to aging and/or circumstantial effects on the genes and/or genomes ORGANISMS, similar to aging and/or evolutionary processes in monocell communities or in multicelled organisms.


SCIENCE SHOULD UNFREEZE. SCIENCE SHOULD ADJUST ITS VISION, COMPREHENSION AND CONCEPTS.


Dov Henis
(Comments From 22nd Century)
http://www.the-scientist.com/community/user/profile/1655.page
Seed of Human-Chimp Genomes Diversity
http://pulse.yahoo.com/_2SF3CJJM5OU6T27OC4MFQSDYEU/blog/articles/53079
03.2010 Updated Life Manifest
http://www.the-scientist.com/community/posts/list/54.page#5065
Evolution, Natural Selection, Derive From Cosmic Expansion
http://darwiniana.com/2010/09/05/the-question-reductionists-fear/
Rethink Evolution/Natural Selection
http://darwiniana.com/2011/03/29/comment-from-dov-henis/comment-page-1/


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