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The Universe at 10 Billion B.C.- An Image of Infinite Stars

6a00d8341bf7f753ef0133ee1ab36b970b-500wi (1) The image reveals a small region inside the massive globular cluster Omega Centauri, which boasts nearly 10 million stars. Globular clusters, ancient swarms of stars united by gravity, are the homesteaders of our Milky Way galaxy. The stars in Omega Centauri are between 10 billion and 12 billion years old. The cluster lies about 16,000 light-years from Earth.

The most distant galaxy cluster ever has been discovered by combining data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and optical and infrared telescopes. The cluster is located about 10.2 billion light years away, beats the previous record holder by about a billion light years and is observed as it was when the Universe was only about a quarter of its present age.

The ancient clusrer, JKCS041, is found at the cusp of when scientists think galaxy clusters can exist in the early Universe based on how long it should take for them to assemble. Therefore, studying its characteristics - such as composition, mass, and temperature - will reveal more about how the Universe took shape.

"This object is close to the distance limit expected for a galaxy cluster," said Stefano Andreon of the National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF) in Milan, Italy. "We don't think gravity can work fast enough to make galaxy clusters much earlier."

Distant galaxy clusters are often detected first with optical and infrared observations that reveal their component galaxies dominated by old, red stars. JKCS041 was originally detected in 2006 in a survey from the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope. The distance to the cluster was then determined from optical and infrared observations from UKIRT, the Canada-France-Hawaii telescope in Hawaii and NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope. Infrared observations are important because the optical light from the galaxies at large distances is shifted into infrared wavelengths because of the expansion of the universe.

The Chandra data were the final - but crucial - piece of evidence as they showed that JKCS041 was, indeed, a genuine galaxy cluster. The extended X-ray emission seen by Chandra shows that hot gas has been detected between the galaxies, as expected for a true galaxy cluster rather than one that has been caught in the act of forming.

Also, without the X-ray observations, the possibility remained that this object could have been a blend of different groups of galaxies along the line of sight, or a filament, a long stream of galaxies and gas, viewed front on. The mass and temperature of the hot gas detected estimated from the Chandra observations rule out both of those alternatives.

The extent and shape of the X-ray emission, along with the lack of a central radio source argue against the possibility that the X-ray emission is caused by scattering of cosmic microwave background light by particles emitting radio waves.

It is not yet possible, with the detection of just one extremely distant galaxy cluster, to test cosmological models, but searches are underway to find other galaxy clusters at extreme distances.

The previous record holder for a galaxy cluster was 9.2 billion light years away, XMMXCS J2215.9-1738, discovered by ESA's XMM-Newton in 2006. This broke the previous distance record by only about 0.1 billion light years, while JKCS041 surpasses XMMXCS J2215.9 by about ten times that.

"What's exciting about this discovery is the astrophysics that can be done with detailed follow-up studies," said Andreon.

Among the questions scientists hope to address by further studying JKCS041 are: What is the build-up of elements (such as iron) like in such a young object? Are there signs that the cluster is still forming? Do the temperature and X-ray brightness of such a distant cluster relate to its mass in the same simple way as they do for nearby clusters?

Casey Kazan from Chandra documents.

Source: University of California - Irvine


I understand the point of looking for distant stars, however, it is essentially a window to the past, and not even our past, just the dead of space. How will this finding progress our flights into space, or assist in our inevitable evolution?

Seeing so far into the past can show us how the universe has changed or evolved over the past 10B years or so. It's not a past of just "dead space".

Wow, that is quite impressive when you think about it. Wow.

What is the source and url for the image shown? I am unable to find it after looking.

Is the B.C. really necessary when speaking in billions of years?!?


It is rumoured that a lot of information about findings on the moon has been classified by the Americans. In 1988 human footprints on the lunar surface was unveiled by a noted Chinese official who was a member of the nation’s space programme. It was stated by the said official that such information has been received from a reliable source and accused the Americans for concealing such fact. Such photos were from August 3rd 1969 that is two weeks after Armstrong and Aldrin stepped on the lunar surface i.e. on July 20th 1969.

If this info is official then it is truly unbeatable. This can be a story of millions of years and a strong foundation for the future.

So do you really believe that this and all the other zillions of objects in the cosmos were compressed into an atom sized particle which "exploded" in the big bang? This is what the leading scientific brains come up with and then they add that because expansion in at an increasing rate, 90 percent or more of the universe is invisible dark energy or anti matter. They still ponder what happened 1 second before the big bang! The Bible says that the creation itself is proof to man of a Creator. I think it takes more faith to believe science than to believe that in the beginning God created the heavens and the earth.

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