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Supergiant Supernova: Betelgeuse Could Explode and Rival the Full Moon

0_61_betelgeuse Betelgeuse, one of the brightest stars in the sky, could burst into its supernova phase and become as bright as a full moon - and last for as long as a year. The massive star is visible in the winter sky over most of the world as a bright, reddish star, could explode as a supernova anytime within the next 100,000 years.

Most astronomers today believe that one of the plausible reasons we have yet to detect intelligent life in the universe is due to the deadly effects of local supernova explosions that wipe out all life in a given region of a galaxy.

While there is, on average, only one supernova per galaxy per century, there is something on the order of 100 billion galaxies in the observable Universe. Taking 10 billion years for the age of the Universe (it's actually 13.7 billion, but stars didn't form for the first few hundred million), Dr. Richard Mushotzky of the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, derived a figure of 1 billion supernovae per year, or 30 supernovae per second in the observable Universe!

The red giant Betelgeuse, once so large it would reach out to Jupiter's orbit if placed in our own solar system, has shrunk by 15 percent over the past decade in a half, although it's just as bright as it's ever been.

"To see this change is very striking," said retired Berkeley physics professor Charles Townes, who won the 1964 Nobel Prize for inventing the laser. "We will be watching it carefully over the next few years to see if it will keep contracting or will go back up in size."

Betelgeuse, whose name derives from Arabic, is easily visible in the constellation Orion. It gave Michael Keaton's character his name in the movie "Beetlejuice" and was the home system of Galactic President Zaphod Beeblebrox in "The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy."

Red giant stars are thought to have short, complicated and violent lifespans. Lasting at most a few million years, they quickly burn out their hydrogen fuel and then switch to helium, carbon and other elements in a series of partial collapses, refuelings and restarts.

Betelgeuse, which is thought to be reaching the end of its lifespan, may be experiencing one of those collapses as it switches from one element to another as nuclear-fusion fuel.

"We do not know why the star is shrinking," said Townes' Berkeley colleague Edward Wishnow. "Considering all that we know about galaxies and the distant universe, there are still lots of things we don't know about stars, including what happens as red giants near the ends of their lives."

If Betelgeuse goes nova, it could offer Earth's astronomers an up close look at how supernovae evolve and the physics that governs how they work. The problem is that is is not clear when that will happen. While stories have been circulating that the star could explode in 2012, the odds of that are actually quite small. Betelgeuse may explode tomorrow night, or it may not go nova until the year 100,000 A.D. It's impossible to know.

Betelgeuse is beyond the death beam distance -somwhere within 30 light years range- where it could do ultimate damage to Earth.The explosion won't do the Earth any harm, as a star has to be relatively close -- on the order of 25 light years -- to do that. Betelgeuse is about 600 light years distant.

Betelgeuse, one of the most luminous stars known and ten times the size of the Sun, is thought to be only 10 million years old. The more massive a star is the shorter its lifespan, which is why astronomers think it has an outside chance of exploding relatively soon.

Late in 2009 year astronomers witnessed the largest explosion ever recorded: a super giant star two hundred times bigger than the sun utterly obliterated by runaway thermonuclear reactions triggered by gamma ray-driven antimatter production.  The resulting blast was visible for months because it unleashed a  cloud of radioactive material over fifty times the size of our own star, giving off a nuclear fission glow visible from galaxies away.

The super-supernova SN2007bi is an example of a "pair-instability" breakdown, and that's like calling an atomic bomb a "plutonium-pressing" device.  At sizes of around four megayottagrams (that's thirty-two zeros) giant stars are supported against gravitational collapse by gamma ray pressure.  The hotter the core, the higher the energy of these gamma rays - but if they get too energetic, these gamma rays can begin pair production: creating an electron-positron matter-antimatter pair out of pure energy as they pass an atom.  Yes, this does mean that the entire stellar core acts as a gigantic particle accelerator.

The antimatter annihilates with its opposite, as antimatter is wont to do, but the problem is that the speed of antimatter explosion - which is pretty damn fast - is still a critical delay in the gamma-pressure holding up the star. The outer layers sag in, compressing the core more, raising the temperature, making more energetic gamma rays even more likely to make antimatter and suddenly the whole star is a runaway nuclear reactor beyond the scale of the imagination.  The entire thermonuclear core detonates at once, an atomic warhead that's not just bigger than the Sun - it's bigger than the Sun plus the mass of another ten close by stars.

The entire star explodes.  No neutron star, no black hole, nothing left behind but an expanding cloud of newly radioactive material and empty space where once was the most massive item you can actually have without ripping space.  The explosion alone triggers alchemy on a suprasolar scale, converting stars' worth of matter into new radioactive elements.

And we saw this. This really happened.  Someday, somewhere, another massive explosion will occur and no one will be left to tweet it.

Certain rare stars -real killers -type 11 stars, are core-collapse hypernova that generate deadly gamma ray bursts (GRBs). These long burst objects release 1000 times the non-neutrino energy release of an ordinary "core-collapse" supernova. Concrete proof of the core-collapse GRB model came in 2003.

It was made possible in part to a fortuitously "nearby" burst whose location was distributed to astronomers by the Gamma-ray Burst Coordinates Network (GCN). On March 29, 2003, a burst went off close enough that the follow-up observations were decisive in solving the gamma-ray burst mystery. The optical spectrum of the afterglow was nearly identical to that of supernova SN1998bw. In addition, observations from x-ray satellites showed the same characteristic signature of "shocked" and "heated" oxygen that's also present in supernovae. Thus, astronomers were able to determine the "afterglow" light of a relatively close gamma-ray burst (located "just" 2 billion light years away) resembled a supernova.

It isn't known if every hypernova is associated with a GRB. However, astronomers estimate only about one out of 100,000 supernovae produce a hypernova. This works out to about one gamma-ray burst per day, which is in fact what is observed.

What is almost certain is that the core of the star involved in a given hypernova is massive enough to collapse into a black hole (rather than a neutron star). So every GRB detected is also the "birth cry" of a new black hole.

Scientists agree that new observations of T Pyxidis in the constellation Pyxis (the compass) using the International Ultraviolet Explorer satellite, indicate the white dwarf is part of a close binary system with a sun, and the pair are 3,260 light-years from Earth and much closer than the previous estimate of 6,000 light-years.

Tpyx The white dwarf in the T Pyxidis system is a recurrent nova, which means it undergoes nova (thermonuclear) eruptions around every 20 years. The most recent known events were in 1967, 1944, 1920, 1902, and 1890. These explosions are nova rather than supernova events, and do not destroy the star, and have no effect on Earth. The astronomers do not know why the there has been a longer than usual interval since the last nova eruption.

Astronomers believe the nova explosions are the result of an increase of mass as the dwarf siphons off hydrogen-rich gases from its stellar companion. When the mass reaches a certain limit a nova is triggered. It is unknown whether there is a net gain or loss of mass during the siphoning/explosion cycle, but if the mass does build up the so-called Chandrasekhar Limit could be reached, and the dwarf would then become a Type 1a supernova. In this event the dwarf would collapse and detonate a massive explosion resulting in its total destruction. This type of supernova releases 10 million times the energy of a nova.

Observations of the white dwarf during the nova eruptions suggest its mass is increasing, and pictures from the Hubble telescope of shells of material expelled during the previous explosions support the view. Models estimate the white dwarf's mass could reach the Chandrasekhar Limit in around 10 million years or less.

According to the scientists the supernova would result in gamma radiation with an energy equivalent to 1,000 solar flares simultaneously - enough to threaten Earth by production of nitrous oxides that would damage and perhaps destroy the ozone layer. The supernova would be as bright as all the other stars in the Milky Way put together. One of the astronomers, Dr Edward Sion, from Villanova University in Pennsylvania, said the supernova could occur "soon" on the timescales familiar to astronomers and geologists, but this is a long time in the future in human terms.

Astronomers think supernova explosions closer than 100 light years from Earth would be catastrophic, but the effects of events further away are unclear and would depend on how powerful the supernova is. The research team postulate it could be close enough and powerful enough to damage Earth, possibly severely, although other researchers, such as Professor Fillipenko of the Berkeley Astronomy Department, disagree with the calculations and believe the supernova, if it occurred, would be unlikely to damage the planet.

Casey Kazan via


The real reason we haven't seen intelligent life is because we are comparatively blind. We've only recently discovered extra-solar planets, hand most of those are still contested discoveries. Once we have a means other than visible or radio telescopy to look for the LGMs, we'll find them.

Wow, OK this makes a lot of sense dude.

Some idiot reporter here in Australia tried to link Betelgeuse to lame. Mind you I would love to witness this event!

Wow dailygalaxy. I've seen some articles that contradict each other within the same day, but never an article that contradicted itself!

First you indicate Betelgeuse could go Supernova (or is it Nova? Your title indicates Supernova, as well as the first statement of the article: "Betelgeuse, one of the brightest stars in the sky, could burst into its supernova phase and become as bright as a full moon", but then you term it as going "Nova" as it goes through it's stages of elemental fueling change. Which is it? Clearly by this article a lone, one is certainly NOT equal to the other. If it's clearly Nova, then you shouldn't be terming your article with the words Supergiant Supernova). However, since it's ~600 light years away, we're out of the "Deathbeam" distance of 25-30 light years and therefore everything's honky-dory. Nevermind the fact that you said it could go Supernova which means your later statements below contradict what you indicated above, that is, we're "safe".

You then indicate the3 white dwarf in the T Pyxidis system is "3,260 light-years from Earth and much closer than the previous estimate of 6,000 light-years." That's a huge distance compared to ~600 light years of the Supergiant Betelgeuse, and yet this tiny white dwarf gaining mass and going Supernova could threaten earth by clearing out the Ozone? That far away? And yet again you say it's unclear of the damage it could cause 100 light years away or more.

While I understand the conflicting theories on the white dwarf, how do we know Betelgeuse is "just going Nova"? How do we know it's not run it's full course of Nova's and isn't going to go Supernova? Even though it's past the ~100 light year catastrophic level mentioned for the White Dwarf, which contradicts the 25-30 light year catastrophic level mentioned earlier, we can't even be sure of this Supergiant's potential energy level if it did go Supernova if we cannot predict a white dwarf.

My conclusion? If you're going to postulate whether or not that white dwarf more than 3000 light years away going supernova would damage the earth, I think it's entirely plausible to postulate whether or not Betelgeuse is going Nova or Supernova; surface explosion vs. core collapse, because if that thing went Supernova, I'd say that's a far BIGGER threat considering the 18-19M of size expanding from it at ~600 light years away as a type II supernova than a white dwarf gaining mass to exceed 1.44M and going type 1a supernova at over 3000 light years away. But perhaps I'm missing something.

Betelgeuse is about 624 light years from Earth. Should we see a Supernova in anywhere between now and 2013 this will mean the Supernova "already" occurred some 624 years ago. I think most of us know what a light year is. Our sun is 8 light minutes from Earth. If it were suddenly gone or went supernova we would not know for 8 minutes and then all of us would have a very bad day.
Remember that the light we are seeing from Betelgeuse is 624 years old and the 15% collapse that we are only now seeing is 624 years old. Thus I assume the Supernova already occurred

Wow, good point. Betelgeuse already went Supernova.

hope it will work i want to see a second sun, that will be an awesome beautiful scene :)

If Betelgeuse went supernova today it would take 650 years for the light to reach earth (It's 650 light years away!!). The second sun that you'll see in the sky is Elenin (Planet X). You can view the JPL orbital tool located here:;orb=1;cad=0;cov=0;log=0#orb

If you align Elenin w/earth & the sun, you will notice the last 2 times it was in line was Feb 27, 2010 (Chile's earthquake) and March 11, 2011 (Japan's Earthquake). Coincidence? You decide cause' it could be a white knuckle ride!!

The reason we have not discovered life on other planets is because God only created life on earth.

The reason we have not discovered life on other planets is because God only created life on earth.

The reason we have not discovered life on other planets is because God only created life on earth.

The reason we have not discovered life on other planets is because God only created life on earth.

In absolute definition as far as light is concerned, light takes zero time to travel from A to B. It is measured to travel at the speed of light but that's a different thing completely. An event 'happens' when the light of the even reaches the observer, therefore one can say with certainty that Betelgeuse has not yet gone nova. One can also be certain that gods have never existed - primitive nonsense.

no one mentioned the change of space into a quantum tunneling bridge between solar system and betelguese supergiant star supernova or whatever you like to call it. the distance of 527 light years will be changed if the supernova happened now!!and nothing is impossible under the sun!! nobody will be sure or unsure of this happening this year 2012!!perhaps the Mayas are sure of this afterall.

H4LFB4CKS: Good thing you posted that FOUR TIMES, or else we wouldnt have believed you!

"The reason we have not discovered life on other planets is because God only created life on earth."

Did God tell you this directly? I have to wonder because nowhere in the Bible, or any other holy book is there any such reference. Even the Vatican has proclaimed that they do not object to a "plurality of worlds" view, stating that if life is discovered elsewhere in the cosmos it will be a testament to God's greatness. Even C.S. Lewis dabbled with the idea in his space novels "Out if the Silent Planet" and "Perlandria."

You might want to start such statements off with a simple but important: "It is my belief that," because you are indeed entitled to you own opinion... only please don't imply that such an opinion is also a demonstrable fact. It's not.

@Ignorance-is-bliss love your comment and Jesse that ours a good point

If a god created earth, and he did so in 6 days, then he is likely to create worlds everywhere as he's around for all eternity. If he only created earth, he must be bored to death since he has absolutely nothing to do. It is clear he doesnt care about earth at all, considering the state it's in: polluted, overpopulated, famines, disasters, wars everywhere, etc. The evidence for a god-less universe is overwhelming, but for believers, evidence doesnt matter... they just believe. Just like kids believe in santa claus. Its because their parents tell them there's a santa clause and they dont see the evidence. Anyway, I'm getting carried away I guess. On topic: I hope Betelgeuse will explode within my life time. I really want to see what a supernova looks like.

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