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"Will Proof of an Adjacent Universe Be the Next Great Discovery?" (Weekend Feature)

M31iras "The idea of multiple universes is more than a fantastic invention—it appears naturally within several scientific theories, and deserves to be taken seriously."

Aurelien Barrau, a French particle physicist at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN).

The Hollywood blockbuster, The Golden Compass, adapted from the first volume of Pullman's classic sci-fi trilogy, "His Dark Materials" portrays various universes as only one reality among many, but how realistic is this kind of classic sci-fi plot? While it hasn’t been proven yet, many highly respected and credible scientists are now saying there’s reason to believe that parallel dimensions could very well be more than figments of our imaginations.

String theorists Neil Turok of Cambridge University and Paul Steinhardt, Albert Einstein Professor in Science and Director of the Center for Theoretical Science at Princeton believe that the cosmos we see as the result of a Big Bang was actually created by the cyclical trillion-year collision of two universes (which they define as three-dimensional branes plus time) that were attracted toward each other by the leaking of gravity out of one of the universes.

Many of the multiple universe proponents are awaiting eagerly for the Large Hadron Collider in Geneva to smash the basic components of the universe together at near the speed of light along a 84-kilometer-long underground racetrack, causing an awesomely high energy reaction similar to the temperatures involved at the Big Bang and spew out the secrets to the cosmos. More exciting than the discovery of Higgs Boson, who's function is giving mass to the particles of matter, could be the possible creation of tiny, particle-sized black holes. Real data from these experiments will rewrite the theorists' Guide to the Quantum Universe.

According to current physics these nano black holes could not be created at the energy levels the LHC is capable of producing. They could only be created if a parallel universe actually exists, providing the extra gravitation needed to generate the nano black holes.

There are a variety of competing theories based on the idea of parallel universes, but the most basic idea is that if the universe is infinite, then everything that could possibly occur has happened, is happening, or will happen.

According to quantum mechanics, nothing at the subatomic scale can really be said to exist until it is observed. Until then, particles occupy uncertain "superposition" states, in which they can have simultaneous "up" and "down" spins, or appear to be in different places at the same time. The mere act of observing somehow appears to "nail down" a particular state of reality. Scientists don’t yet have a perfect explanation for how it occurs, but that hasn’t changed the fact that the phenomenon does occur.

Unobserved particles are described by "wave functions" representing a set of multiple "probable" states. When an observer makes a measurement, the particle then settles down into one of these multiple options, which is somewhat how the multiple universe theory can be explained.

The existence of such a parallel universe "does not even assume speculative modern physics, merely that space is infinite and rather uniformly filled with matter as indicated by recent astronomical observations," Max Tegmark, a cosmologist at MIT in Boston, Massachusetts concluded in a study of parallel universes published by Cambridge University.

Mathematician Hugh Everett published landmark paper in 1957 while still a graduate student at Princeton University. In this paper he showed how quantum theory predicts that a single classical reality will gradually split into separate, but simultaneously existing realms.

"This is simply a way of trusting strictly the fundamental equations of quantum mechanics," says Barrau. "The worlds are not spatially separated, but exist as kinds of 'parallel' universes."

Partly because the idea is so uncomfortably strange, it’s dismissed as sci-fi by many critics. But there are also many credible, respected proponents of the theory—a group that is continuously gaining new adherents as new research unveils new evidence. Some Oxford research—for the first time—recently found  a mathematical answer that sweeps away one of the key objections to the controversial idea. Their research shows that Everett was indeed on the right track when he came up with his multiverse theory. The Oxford team, led by Dr David Deutsch, showed mathematically that the bush-like branching structure created by the universe splitting into parallel versions of itself can explain the probabilistic nature of quantum outcomes.

The work has another strange implication. The idea of parallel universes would apparently side-step one of the key complaints with time travel. Every since it was given serious credibility in 1949 by the great logician Kurt Godel, many eminent physicists have argued against time travel because it undermines ideas of cause and effect. An example would be the famous “grandfather paradox” where a time traveler goes back to kill his grandfather so that he is never born in the first place.

But if parallel worlds do exist, there is a way around these troublesome paradoxes. Deutsch argues that time travel shifts happen between different branches of reality. The mathematical breakthrough bolsters his claim that quantum theory does not forbid time travel. "It does sidestep it. You go into another universe," he said. But he admits that there will be a lot of work to do before we can manipulate space-time in a way that makes “hops” possible. While it may sound fanciful, Deutsch says that scientific research is continually making the theory more believable.

"Many sci-fi authors suggested time travel paradoxes would be solved by parallel universes but in my work, that conclusion is deduced from quantum theory itself."

The borderline between physics and metaphysics is not defined by whether an entity can be observed, but whether it is testable, insists Tegmark.

He points to phenomena such as black holes, curved space, the slowing of time at high speeds, even a round Earth, which were all once rejected as scientific heresy before being proven through experimentation, even though some remain beyond the grasp of observation. It is likely, Tegmark concludes that multiverse models grounded in modern physics will eventually be empirically testable, predictive and disprovable.

In the view of Neil Turok of Cambridge University and Paul Steinhardt, the complexities of an inflating universe after a Big Bang are replaced by a universe that was already large. flat, and uniform with dark energy as the effect of the other universe constantly leaking gravity into our own and driving its acceleration. 

According to this theory, the Big Bang was not the beginning of time but the bridge to a past filled with endlessly repeating cycles of evolution, each accompanied by the creation of new matter and the formation of new galaxies, stars, and planets. 

Turok and Steinhardt were inspired by a lecture given by Burt Ovrut who imagined two branes, universes like ours, separated by a tiny gap as tiny as 10-32 meters. There would be no communictaion between the two universes except for our parallel sister universe's gravitational pull, which could cross the tiny gap. 

Orvut's theory could explain the effect of dark matter where areas of the universe are heavier than they should be given everything that's present. With their theory, the nagging problems surrounding the Big Bang (beginning from what, and caused how?) are replaced by an eternal cosmic cycle where dark energy is no longer a mysterious unknown quantity, but rather the very extra gravitational force that drives the universe to universe (brane-brane) interaction. 

Casey Kazan with Rebecca Sato

Sources:

http://endlessuniverse.net/ http://www.damtp.cam.ac.uk/user/ngt1000/

http://www.dailygalaxy.com/my_weblog/2007/09/n--one-of-the-m.html

http://physorg.com/news118241154.html

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/earth/main.jhtml?xml=/earth/2007/09/21/sciuni121.xml

http://www.breitbart.com/article.php?id=paUniverse_sun14_parallel_universes&show_article=1&cat=0

Comments

Yes very good article, one of the other Universes is actually a gravity dimension. You could have a lot more Universes, but they won't be parallel to this one. They might be parallel to the other one, all interconnected.

parallel meaning the same, but the universe is totally different from ours, like when they say the parallel universe is exactly the same except for lets say hitler got shot before he slaughtered all those people. But if he got shot that changes the universe completely in ways i dont feel like explaining. I dont like ow they say its parallel to ours except for one HUGE eevent because it changes that universe completely making it not parallel

I HOPE THIS UNIVERSE HAS SANDWICHES LOL

My comments being in the last process of writing suddenly disappeared from the site, thanks to the Managers of this site who do not perhaps like a scientist from the east to provide some conceptual information available for thousands of years in the ancient Indian literature! This is just to decry the entire science as well as the concepts therein, have all originated through the intelligence and wisdom of American and European scientists.A look at the works of German Philosopher, Max Mueller will suffice to inform them that Indian ancient literature through the Vedas and the Upanishads touches on the many scientific concepts of science of the day in many enriching ways. IT is a trend that needs international condemnation, as imposed hegemony from any source is basically unscientific and is a result of racial superiority. Remember that the entire science was just a branch of Philosophy till 1930's or so.Actually, philosophers from many non-european countries too have contributed to science. That aspect is truly historic and deserves incorporation and recognition in science.

To my comments above, it may added that i touched upon the multi universes idea and interaction between them. It is a part of Indian ancient literature and has been touched upon by German Philosopher, Max Mueller when he wrote his commentaries on such a rich literature written 3000 to 5000 years back.

I have a question, I know it's a funny one but Did the whole universe come into existence at one sigle moment of time? Or did our galaxies existence come into creation at a different time then some of the other galaxies. Because if the opposite of matter is it's gravitational output and that would mean that gravity and matter would have to come into existence at the very same time. That means that randomness existence of galaxies could pop up out of nowhere. Could that be true. But HELL ya, to this question because that would mean that we are really little in the scheme of things. We would almost not even feel like an existence to the universe. But yet, Be the biggest thing it ever created.

@Justin, Modern science will tell you that galaxies are formed from space dust which compacted then gaining sufficient mass and gravity will form planets, stars and galaxies. No one knows how the Universe formed, whether it popped in with all the space dust intact or it exploded and then formed dust. Now if it exploded like in the big bang then where did the dust come from ? If it just popped in intact with dust then how did that happen, God, magic, irate tooth fairy ?
@ Narendra Nath, You are losing the plot. Those same texts also have a lot of stuff that can now be disproved, which makes one wonder if the texts are nothing more than fantasy. Also the Mayans, Egyptians, Aztec, Sumer and so many others have verifiable scientific data in their writings. The problem is the points you are arguing for that are similar to modern ideas are just that, ideas. No one has proven anything, and next year or 100 years on they could well be found out to be rubbish.

Parallel Universes are part and parcel of ancient Indian teachings. The Day and Night of Brahma - in the Hindu texts - refer to the Day as the manifestation of the Universe which dissolves itself at night and restores itself the following day. Day in this context means Trillions upon Trillions of years as known to Earth man. The Days and Nights have been going on for umpteen times. Some study of 'Mahaprayala' may be useful in this context. Science by itself at this stage cannot explain these things. It is the Rishis and Seers of old through intense meditation who broke the space and time barrier to understand these secrets only now becoming known to us.

UNIVERSAL ISSUES

@Naranda Nath
I totally agree with your: “Remember that the entire science was just a branch of Philosophy till 1930's or so. Actually, philosophers from many non-european countries too have contributed to science. That aspect is truly historic and deserves incorporation and recognition in science”.

@ Justin,
You asked: “Did the whole universe come into existence at one single moment of time”?
The keyword here is “single” which connects to “singularity”, a total meaningless concept both in cosmology and mathematics. Nothing can be created or exist in a singularity! Not a “big bang” and not “black holes”. We have just this Universe of which we only can observe a part, and all speculations of “other Universes” have just origin because of lack of natural understanding of the observed objects. Read also here: http://whatreallyhappened.com/WRHARTICLES/bang.html

@Observer,
You are answering Narendra Nath: “. . . Those same texts also have a lot of stuff that can now be disproved, which makes one wonder if the texts are nothing more than fantasy. Also the Mayans, Egyptians, Aztec, Sumer and so many others have verifiable scientific data in their writings. The problem is the points you are arguing for that are similar to modern ideas are just that, ideas”.

- It all depends of how you are studying the old texts, I think. Besides some factual cosmological descriptions of some celestial movements and other, there are some troubles “reading” the mythological text and symbols. If one read the different mythological “deities” as personal in stead of “cosmological principles”, it becomes very difficult to get through to some further cosmological information in the myths. But if you can overcome the interpretation difficulties, a lot of cosmological information can be gathered and compared to modern cosmological measurements – even to such degree that Myths can correct the modern scientifically thinking about the Universe. Some Mytho-Cosmological example here: http://www.native-science.net

@Paramasvaran Kandiah,
You wrote: “The Day and Night of Brahma - in the Hindu texts - refer to the Day as the manifestation of the Universe which dissolves itself at night and restores itself the following day. Day in this context means Trillions upon Trillions of years as known to Earth man”, end of quote.

- I think we are talking of a principle of the Creation here, namely that everything undergoes an eternal change between construction and dissolving. I’m not sure that Day and Night describes “parallel universes” but more likely the Light and Matter which are involved in the eternal creational changing movements, like in the symbol of Yin Yang.

Otherwise I totally agree with you in this: “Science by itself at this stage cannot explain these things. It is the Rishis and Seers of old through intense meditation who broke the space and time barrier to understand these secrets only now becoming known to us”, end of quote.

Our Forefathers and Foremothers all over the World had indeed an enormous cosmological knowledge gathered via their intuitive and spiritual skills and in a respect for our Old Ones, I also hope that their knowledge and especially their way of getting intuitive/spiritual knowledge, will be fully and generally accepted in the future, as it once was in the past.

Kind Regard
Ivar Nielsen
Natural Philosopher
http://www.native-science.net
http://www.cosmology-unified.net

If interjection is allowed we have a good comments session. Nothing is finally proved or disproved is the methodology of present times. Philosophical ideas are still the start of science which later on looks for experimental proofs. Cosmology is still a speculative science mainly as proofs come with large errors in data. The best way is to conduct such expts. away from the Solar system. It may become possible soon.
As far as the different universes in ancient India literature are concerned, the basis lies in intelligence and consciousness that leads to a degree of wisdom. Different verses mean different levels of consciousness. You may say that are intermediate states of existence between we humans and the Creator we call God. Such demigods are predicted even in the Bible. Their has to be continuity of different kinds of existence, say even the span of life in such universes. That is what is said in Indian ancient literature where intelligent living beings are widely different. Eben on the present universe, the early saintly hermits use to have thousand years of life span! We have presently lost that capability but it can be revived if we again make our lives less complex through reducing 'technology' aspect!

@Narendra Nath I have a hard time believing that humans once had lifespans of thousands of years that is fiction. Your body simply isn't designed to last that long.
One of the fundamental problems of reading ancient writings is the way things are described. When the Amazon tribes first saw a helicopter, they proceeded to record it as the coming of the great dragon. Things that we take for granted now would be so alien to ancient cultures that they will find it hard to describe. The mindset of most ancient cultures is based on superstition, this thought process will find its way into descriptions of the unknown. Look at the last couple hundred years for example, the world was thought flat, sea monsters were thought to exist and headaches were cured by drilling holes in the skull to let out evil spirits. The business of robbing people because of their superstitious beliefs are alive and well in India today. I remember watching a Science program on TV where they used a syringe to inject blood into a coconut and then going into an Indian village and pretending to remove spirits from people and putting them in the coconut. The villagers were so take in by the blood in the coconut that some were willing to offer their most valuable belongings to the supposed "miracle workers". Even when the team explained to the villagers that it was a con, the villagers were still prepared to pay to have the spirits removed.
You really need to take ancient writings with a grain of salt, but there are some that defy explanation.

why cant the other universe be perpendicular ?

just joined in here, but i see what several people have brought up is more related to time travel than parallel dimensions. as far as time travel and dimemsions go, let's say you could time travel and alter hitler's course; it would tremendously alter a lot of things in many dimensions.. but not ours because it already happened

ha aha aha aha ha ha ha ha aha aha ahhha ahh ha ha ha ha!!!!!!!!

In regard to time travel, lets say you could alter the past, present or future..What's the best thing that would come out of it? eternal life? Then, perhaps, one day the universe that you happen to be in collapses/freezes/bursts without notice or maybe something goes wrong while escaping a collapsing universe,etc
The point here is that even if people live eternally it doesn't change the fact that either (a) we'll probably die of some internal/external cause or (b) living forever would be just that: living forever wondering about the other infinite aspects of space (with possibly different physics altogether) that we can't reach for another 1,000 years. Not that thinking about universes isn't fun, but whatever everyone's purpose is in their lifetime I'm sure it's for something...everything would seem like a waste of energy otherwise

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