Zooming in on the Most Massive Galaxies Ever Discovered (A Galaxy Insight)
Microsoft & Google: Icons of the New Space Race?

Quark Soup Served @4 Trillion Degrees Celsius (250,000 Xs Center of Sun) -That's HOT!

Eit027 Protons and neutrons melted to produce ‘quark-gluon plasma’ at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), a 2.4-mile-circumference “atom smasher” at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. This event establishes that collisions of gold ions traveling at nearly the speed of light have created matter at a temperature of about 4 trillion degrees Celsius — the hottest temperature ever reached in a laboratory, about 250,000 times hotter than the center of the Sun. This temperature is higher than the temperature needed to melt protons and neutrons into a plasma of quarks and gluons -a truly remarkable new form of matter.

Scientists believe that a plasma of quarks and gluons existed a few microseconds after the birth of the universe, before cooling and condensing to form the protons and neutrons that make up all the matter around us — from individual atoms to stars, planets, and people. Although the matter produced at RHIC survives for much less than a billionth of a trillionth of a second, its properties can be determined using RHIC’s highly sophisticated detectors to look at the thousands of particles emitted during its brief lifetime. The measurements provide new insights into Nature’s strongest force — in essence, what holds all the protons and neutrons of the universe together.

“This research offers significant insight into the fundamental structure of matter and the early universe...,” said Dr. William F. Brinkman, Director of the DOE Office of Science.

These new temperature measurements, combined with other observations analyzed over nine years of operations indicate that RHIC’s gold-gold collisions produce a freely flowing liquid composed of quarks and gluons. Such a substance, often referred to as quark-gluon plasma, or QGP, filled the universe a few microseconds after it came into existence 13.7 billion years ago. At RHIC, this liquid appears, and the quoted temperature is reached, in less time than it takes light to travel across a single proton.

According to Steven Vigdor, Brookhaven’s Associate Laboratory Director for Nuclear and Particle Physics, who oversees the RHIC research program, “These data provide the first measurement of the temperature of the quark-gluon plasma at RHIC.”

Scientists measure the temperature of hot matter by looking at the color, or energy distribution, of light emitted from it — similar to the way one can tell that an iron rod is hot by looking at its glow. Because light interacts very little with the hot liquid produced at RHIC, it bears accurate witness to the early cauldron-like conditions created within.

Said Vigdor, “The temperature inferred from these new measurements at RHIC is considerably higher than the long-established maximum possible temperature attainable without the liberation of quarks and gluons from their normal confinement inside individual protons and neutrons.

“However,” he added, “the quarks and gluons in the matter we see at RHIC behave much more cooperatively than the independent particles initially predicted for QGP.

The research program at RHIC will be complemented by studies soon to get underway at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), a 17-mile-circumference particle accelerator in Europe. The LHC will devote a month each year to colliding heavy nuclei at energies much higher than RHIC’s — extending the exploration of matter one step farther back in time toward the birth of the universe.

Calculations of quantum chromodynamics now predict that as temperatures increase significantly, quark-gluon matter should slowly evolve from RHIC’s perfect liquid to an ideal gas. The LHC will provide the first opportunity to observe this evolution as collision temperatures increase by a factor of 2 to 3 in its own heavy-ion experiments, set to begin in late 2010.

At the same time, RHIC’s upgrades and flexible operations will allow scientists to quantify particle interactions inside the perfect liquid and explore the phase diagram of nuclear matter. “RHIC and the LHC will work together in complementary ways to broaden our understanding of the basic constituents of our universe and the forces that shape them,” Vigdor said.

The discoveries at RHIC have led to compelling new questions in the field of quantum chromodynamics (QCD), the theory that describes the interactions of the smallest known components of the atomic nucleus. To probe these and other questions and conduct detailed studies of the plasma, Brookhaven physicists are planning to upgrade RHIC over the next few years to increase its collision rate and detector capabilities.

Casey Kazan




About time to smash quark-gluon matter too if you can handle them to see what they brake down to!..... they two must be made of somenthings smaller than them.

At what point does the information gleaned from smaller & smaller particles become "questionable"? I say this because to assume that "there must be something smaller..." implies that we know what it is that we're looking for. Speed aside, do we have the technology to properly examine the residue from the collisions needed to find these smaller "particles"? At what point do the collisions start producing matter that doesn't or won't register? Will it even exist? Are you looking for "dark matter"?

Scientists measure the temperature of hot matter by looking at the color, or energy distribution, of light emitted from it . nice one.

That means people’s body temperatures defers according to their skin color and energy they put out!!! which ones are the hottest?


human bodies do not emit light.

"That means people’s body temperatures defers according to their skin color and energy they put out!!! which ones are the hottest?"

If you have IR vision the answer is yes.

The hottest ones, they would be the athletes of course. High metabolism, low body fat - they'd be just glowing!

creating quarks ..reproducing the first seconds of Bigbang!!!
Is there a quark star like neutron star..?What sought of sophisticated machine detected it which exists for
billionth or trillionth of a second ?There r three generations of lepton but only 2 for a quark ...this article is incomplete ..
we expected more data regarding quarks and gluons after such a
result from RHIC.

Congratulations for creating temperature of around 4 trillion degrees celcius heat in the lab. I would like to know whether the temperature is estimated or measured? if measured then how? What the instrumentation used? do you have a video cliping to illustrate?

what sacale of colour you used?

My comments have disappeare4d from the site, i do not understand how. Perhaps, the site Managers do not approve the same. May be i should not look up this website and give my free and frank comments. NN

It always took defernt tow to make one important creation, quarks and gluons to make Proton, protone to make hydrogen starting element of all elements, gravity and cinterfugal forces to enable stars work and make the rest of all matter. and in bilogy male and female to generate new being, always took two, no one worked on it's own...... beleive in God the only one designed and instructed them to work that way.

Thanks for you timely and informative posts. I’ve only been reading your blog for a short period of time, but you’ve already given me a few great ideas!

Can anybody tell,What will happen if 4 trillion degree c situation lasted for more than 1 second!!!!

Verify your Comment

Previewing your Comment

This is only a preview. Your comment has not yet been posted.

Your comment could not be posted. Error type:
Your comment has been posted. Post another comment

The letters and numbers you entered did not match the image. Please try again.

As a final step before posting your comment, enter the letters and numbers you see in the image below. This prevents automated programs from posting comments.

Having trouble reading this image? View an alternate.


Post a comment

Your Information

(Name is required. Email address will not be displayed with the comment.)