The Daily Flash -Eco, Space, Tech (12/01)
"Little Ice Age" 12,800 Years Ago Was Triggered in Months (not decades)

New Discovery: Supermassive Black Holes Create Galaxies

208021main_spitzer20080110-hires The answer may have been found to the question of whether a galaxy or its black hole comes first -one of the most debated subjects in astrophysics today. A startling new study suggests that supermassive black holes can trigger the formation of stars, thus 'building' their own host galaxies. This finding could also explain why galaxies hosting larger black holes have more stars. To reach such an extraordinary conclusion, the team of astronomers conducted extensive observations of a peculiar object, the quasar HE0450-2958, also called the "naked quasar" and the "quasar without a home," because it the only one for which a host galaxy has not yet been detected. 
Until now, it was speculated that the quasar's host galaxy was hidden behind large amounts of dust, and so the astronomers used a mid-infrared instrument on ESO's Very Large Telescope for the observations [2]. At such wavelengths, dust clouds shine very brightly, and are readily detected. "Observing at these wavelengths would allow us to trace dust that might hide the host galaxy," says Knud Jahnke, who led the observations performed at the VLT. "However, we did not find any. Instead we discovered that an apparently unrelated galaxy in the quasar's immediate neighbourhood is producing stars at a frantic rate."

These observations have provided a surprising new take on the system. While no trace of stars is revealed around the black hole, its companion galaxy is extremely rich in bright and very young stars. It is forming stars at a rate equivalent to about 350 Suns per year, one hundred times more than rates for typical galaxies in the local Universe.

Earlier observations had shown that the companion galaxy is, in fact, under fire: the quasar is spewing a jet of highly energetic particles towards its companion, accompanied by a stream of fast-moving gas. The injection of matter and energy into the galaxy indicates that the quasar itself might be inducing the formation of stars and thereby creating its own host galaxy; in such a scenario, galaxies would have evolved from clouds of gas hit by the energetic jets emerging from quasars.

"The two objects are bound to merge in the future: the quasar is moving at a speed of only a few tens of thousands of km/h with respect to the companion galaxy and their separation is only about 22 000 light-years," says Elbaz. "Although the quasar is still 'naked', it will eventually be 'dressed' when it merges with its star-rich companion. It will then finally reside inside a host galaxy like all other quasars."

Hence, the team have identified black hole jets as a possible driver of galaxy formation, which may also represent the long-sought missing link to understanding why the mass of black holes is larger in galaxies that contain more stars [3].

"A natural extension of our work is to search for similar objects in other systems," says Jahnke.

Future instruments, such as the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array, the European Extremely Large Telescope and the NASA/ESA/CSA James Webb Space Telescope will be able to search for such objects at even larger distances from us, probing the connection between black holes and the formation of galaxies in the more distant Universe.

Casey Kazan


Source: ESO

Comments

December 02/2006

Black holes Create Galaxies and Life

When it comes to questions and answers on the universe the whole world of people can contribute. I must admit that like my father before me John Logie Baird as a lone man has difficulty in making his voice heard, but with inherited tenacity I, undaunted proceed to spread my word hoping that some kind person, in power, will become my champion.

Everything so it seems started with “ the big bang” which is generally accepted today as the best theory. Yet in later studies planets and ages of planets differ causing some disconcertion to the theorists.

In every day life we can see samples which can aid us in research to answer many questions.

I have seen many explosions and none go bang and its over, there is always a long burn or later explosions to the main one. The big bang must have been followed by many on going smaller explosions covering a time pattern of millions of years, therefore making it difficult to date certain areas of the universe in comparison to others. Plus with the idea of worm holes CREATING Galaxies as a ongoing thing there will be varying dates

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The most exciting news recently became public that there is a “black hole” in the centre of all Galaxy’s. Armed with this knowledge it is immediately apparent that the hole is the “Belly Button” of the Galaxy. This is where matter is spewed out from the collecting end far away. The black hole must be like a space tornado, with a spiral twisting motion causing the matter to flow out in the Galaxy spiral we know so well.

When the other end of the hole finishes drawing matter in then the Galaxy is formed and the frantic work of the hole goes into a period of rest.

The size of the hole in the Galaxy is a direct measurement of the age of that Galaxy, i.e. the larger the black hole the older the Galaxy.

The black hole though dormant does not disappears but remains to be used again and over millions of years galaxies are formed and reformed many times.

As the active collection end of the black hole collects nearby matter there must be a time limit or a distance limit as to how much it collects, as many holes are inactive but can still be seen. It would seem that a sudden increase in gravity or a star explosion causes the whole process to start.

If we can find the answer to what causes gravity, then many questions will be answered.

The fact again arises that I am a lone man and have no research facilities available to me but a educated guess is that the speed of atoms cause gravitational pull and if we could weigh an object, then increase the atom speed, probably by heating the object then re weigh the same we would have our answer.

It seems the most controlling factors of the universe are heat and pressure, I feel these are very prominent in gravitational pull and with some diligent research this question could be solved.

It may be possible to estimate the amount of matter

Within the active worm holes, or maybe when the flurry of activity is over the black hole still contains a huge amount of compressed matter. The death and collapse of a star at either end of the black hole starts the creation of life over again.

I feel sure that the difference in age will vary between the outer stars of the galaxy and the inner stars.

May be if we search we can see a galaxy being formed

And therefore the very start of life itself!!

By looking for a black hole the same size as ours we can safely guess that this is the Galaxy that may support life!
Dr Gordon Robert Mays.

"The fact again arises that I am a lone man and have no research facilities available to me but a educated guess is that the speed of atoms cause gravitational pull and if we could weigh an object, then increase the atom speed, probably by heating the object then re weigh the same we would have our answer."
-Dr. Gordon Robert Mays

Do you know physics, chemistry, or perhaps most important and specific General Relativity?

The speed of individual atoms do not cause any difference in the "weight"(Maybe you should think of matter if you are going to even take a hack at the simpler Newtonian Gravity model). I would speak only of the curvature of space time which governs the motion of inertial objects when mentioning gravity. Essentially a 4 dimensional model of the object and resulting gravity determined by its momentum. Tell me sir how is momentum changed by heat? You must think of heat as a browning motion of atoms. A random walk or vibration. Statistically speaking the resulting net momentum will be 0(think of a three dimensional, hell even four dimensional model of a shit ton of random walks by a crap load of tiny objects (sometimes in a structural formation, liquid, air, or plasma).

What if there are two galaxies connected to a super-massive black hole at any one time – the galaxy that is being consumed and the galaxy that is being created. Once a critical threshold is met creation becomes dormant and a vacuum reversal occurs in the black hole. It starts to dismantle that which it created in order to recreate that which was formerly consumed. In this way it continues to feed itself kinetic energy so that it can persist – it is self-sustaining.

http://www.stephenlinsteadtstudio.com/Images/ouroborus/ouroboros_figureeight.jpg

Late to the party again? Oh well.

I think the speculation in the article above is correct. According to my own published theory, now over 50 years old, galactic black holes create new matter from its surrounding "field material" which are the particle/ string constituents of the Zero Point Field (ZPF) which through the gravitational forces of the black hole create protons, electrons, positrons, hydrogen, helium,(anti-protons are accordingly short lived) that show up in galactic jets and huge volumes surrounding the poles of galactic black holes.

This accordingly is the source for the creation of all matter (no Big Bang or related creation). "Dark matter" accordingly is nothing more than ZPF particles and their energy of motion. It is not matter at all but is accordingly the sole cause of gravity. The entire theory, predictions, and book can be seen at pantheory.com

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