The human brain can react and rewire itself to adapt to new situations. "No duh," you might say, "That's kind of it's job." But now scientists have recorded the brain adapting far faster than it's physically possible to make new connections, hinting at hidden wiring or some other automatic-interaction system that allows for rapid reprogramming.
MIT neuroscientists, one of the smartest-sounding groups outside of "Lex Luthor's Tutors", studied the effects of depriving input on various volunteers or victims of brain injuries. "Phantom limb syndrome" is already well known, where the brain starts reacting to signals sent from a limb that's no longer there. The researchers were able to investigate this effect in a non-permanent fashion by studying how the visual cortex deals with the blind spot in each eye's vision - a region where there is a "missing" region of input.
Their experiments found that the brain adapted input from other regions into the blind spot within seconds. They related this to the idea of "referred sensations", where the brain remaps signals from a missing body part to input from somewhere else that's still attached. Experiments with stroke victims who'd permanently lost part of the vision gave the same results: the bleeding of information from the remaining nerves into the blank region.
Of course vision isn't quite the same as a body part, but the idea is the same: how neurons adapt to deal with missing information, and how they can incorporate data from other body parts with amazing speed. Extremely good news for those waiting for the technology to implant extra connectors into their heads.