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Parallel Universes: Are They More Than a Figment of Our Imagination? A Galaxy Classic

Multiverse_2 "The multiverse is no longer a model, it is a consequence of our models.”

~Aurelien Barrau, particle physicist at CERN

The Hollywood blockbuster, The Golden Compass, adapted from the first volume of Pullman's classic sci-fi trilogy, "His Dark Materials" portrays various universes as only one reality among many, but how realistic is this kind of classic sci-fi plot? While it hasn’t been proven yet, many highly respected and credible scientists are now saying there’s reason to believe that parallel dimensions could very well be more than figments of our imaginations.

"The idea of multiple universes is more than a fantastic invention—it appears naturally within several scientific theories, and deserves to be taken seriously," stated Aurelien Barrau, a French particle physicist at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN).

There are a variety of competing theories based on the idea of parallel universes, but the most basic idea is that if the universe is infinite, then everything that could possibly occur has happened, is happening, or will happen.

According to quantum mechanics, nothing at the subatomic scale can really be said to exist until it is observed. Until then, particles occupy uncertain "superposition" states, in which they can have simultaneous "up" and "down" spins, or appear to be in different places at the same time. The mere act of observing somehow appears to "nail down" a particular state of reality. Scientists don’t yet have a perfect explanation for how it occurs, but that hasn’t changed the fact that the phenomenon does occur.

Unobserved particles are described by "wave functions" representing a set of multiple "probable" states. When an observer makes a measurement, the particle then settles down into one of these multiple options, which is somewhat how the multiple universe theory can be explained.

The existence of such a parallel universe "does not even assume speculative modern physics, merely that space is infinite and rather uniformly filled with matter as indicated by recent astronomical observations," Max Tegmark, a cosmologist at MIT in Boston, Massachusetts concluded in a study of parallel universes published by Cambridge University.

Mathematician Hugh Everett published landmark paper in 1957 while still a graduate student at Princeton University. In this paper he showed how quantum theory predicts that a single classical reality will gradually split into separate, but simultaneously existing realms.

"This is simply a way of trusting strictly the fundamental equations of quantum mechanics," says Barrau. "The worlds are not spatially separated, but exist as kinds of 'parallel' universes."

Partly because the idea is so uncomfortably strange, it’s dismissed as sci-fi by many critics. But there are also many credible, respected proponents of the theory—a group that is continuously gaining new adherents as new research unveils new evidence. Some Oxford research—for the first time—recently found  a mathematical answer that sweeps away one of the key objections to the controversial idea. Their research shows that Everett was indeed on the right track when he came up with his multiverse theory. The Oxford team, led by Dr David Deutsch, showed mathematically that the bush-like branching structure created by the universe splitting into parallel versions of itself can explain the probabilistic nature of quantum outcomes.

The work has another strange implication. The idea of parallel universes would apparently side-step one of the key complaints with time travel. Every since it was given serious credibility in 1949 by the great logician Kurt Godel, many eminent physicists have argued against time travel because it undermines ideas of cause and effect. An example would be the famous “grandfather paradox” where a time traveler goes back to kill his grandfather so that he is never born in the first place.

But if parallel worlds do exist, there is a way around these troublesome paradoxes. Deutsch argues that time travel shifts happen between different branches of reality. The mathematical breakthrough bolsters his claim that quantum theory does not forbid time travel. "It does sidestep it. You go into another universe," he said. But he admits that there will be a lot of work to do before we can manipulate space-time in a way that makes “hops” possible. While it may sound fanciful, Deutsch says that scientific research is continually making the theory more believable.

"Many sci-fi authors suggested time travel paradoxes would be solved by parallel universes but in my work, that conclusion is deduced from quantum theory itself."

The borderline between physics and metaphysics is not defined by whether an entity can be observed, but whether it is testable, insists Tegmark.

He points to phenomena such as black holes, curved space, the slowing of time at high speeds, even a round Earth, which were all once rejected as scientific heresy before being proven through experimentation, even though some remain beyond the grasp of observation. It is likely, Tegmark concludes that multiverse models grounded in modern physics will eventually be empirically testable, predictive and disprovable.

Posted by Rebecca Sato

Related Galaxy posts:

New Proof from Oxford: Parallel Universes Exist
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WOW so somewhere someplace Bush just got elected for a 3rd term. wholly crap glad I am not in that branch.

....or even worse Pallin is now President.

There is a universe where all the aborted babies are alive and well.

Thought for sure someone would bring up EVP as possible proof. Just a idea.

Agreed, there HAS to be something out there, its only logical.


There is also a universe where all aborted babies...are aborted!!!

and there's a universe where all the abused children born of rape etc are aborted rather than live a life of suffering

That means also that Zephram Cochrane (inventor of the warp drive) exists somewhere.

I want to be in the universe where there is no country music.

I want the paradise universe.

Why couldn't have I been born in the Dragonball Z universe, or at least in the Super Mario Galaxy?

Hey nice one. I really like seeing all the physics stories this year. The media has taken an interest in many more physics stories since that of the LHC earlier this year.

I want to be in the universe where there is no country music.

Since the universe started with the big bang, it is finite, not infinite. Fer cryin' out loud.

just make sure your dad has been born before you kill your grandad

I was born of rape and the only suffering I have is from fools that think I suffer.

Ecclesiastes 1:9 (New International Version)

9 What has been will be again,
what has been done will be done again;
there is nothing new under the sun.

Can I PLEASE move to the Universe where Ron Paul is President?

Somewhere there's a universe where everyone on here has a billion dollars / or the equivalent in pounds, yen, marks, we have flying cars powered by veggie oil, there are trips to Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, skiing on Europa, vacations to various points in time, & I meet a supermodel !!!
& somewhere in Florida, Jeb Bushis eating a live puppy....

Seriously, these universes could be by - products of actions in THIS universe - If someone squashes a butterfly in this universe, it has an effect in an alternate universe.

Think about it.....

I don't think time can cross streams like that. Each universe would have it's own separate time wave.

but does time really exist? if there really are other dimensions where everything has happend, is happening, or will happen, does time even matter? could this universe in which we exist be but a speck of dirt floating in the bath tub of a higher being? or be a speck of dirt on a speck of dirt on a speck of dirt on a speck of...

i don't think the universe we inhabit is infinite and that there is an "edge" to it. if we broke through that barrier would it be like bursting a bubble? what's on the other side?

wrong question my son !

If (and it's a mighty big 'if') there are an infinity of parallel universes, there must be one where we can move easily between it and other universes, but also another one which exists in reality all by itself with no other parallel neighbour. The mechanics of the Big Bang dictate that Dark Energy (expanding the universe) will be overcome by Gravity (contracting the universe) and everything will be renewed in another Big Bang.

Some " experts " are of the opinion that alternative universes & variations of same may account for phenomena like " ghost " sightings / hauntings & UFO's, etc. The fabric of our space becames so thin that alternate universes get a glimpse into each other. It's only a theory, but it's a very interesting one & would explain some things.

Multiple universes! What wonders might be! I'm beside myself with anticipation.

Sadly, though, Dante's nine circles of hell are now not only made plausible but also eventually mandatory (assuming a sufficient amount of eventuality) and, worse, insufficient. 9? 99? 999?...

But, this being the result of quantum fluctuation, they too shall pass, along with the hysterically bright varieties of heaven.

But that all depends on when and where. Currently, for all we know, Dr.Pangloss may be spot on.

I want to be in the universe with the male birth control pill and where women pay for dates.

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