Antarctica Observatory: Searching for the Hottest Mystery in Science
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April 15, 2009

Antarctica Observatory: Searching for the Hottest Mystery in Science

Dark_energy_cluster_2“We’re looking at a tug-of-war with dark energy and gravity trying to expand or collapse the universe.”

John Carlstrom, South Pole astronomer and University of Chicago astrophysicist.

Sptpole_2 A big telescope, as high as a seven-story building, with a main mirror measuring 32 1/2 feet across is being built at the Amundsen-Scott Station in the Antarctica  looming over a barren plain of ice that gets colder than anywhere else on the planet.

The instrument at the far end of the world is being built scientists can search for clues that might identify the most powerful, plentiful but elusive substance in the universe -- dark energy.

The telescope will help scientists to reveal new details regarding a mysterious phenomenon called dark energy, which makes the expansion of the universe accelerate. Albert Einstein's famous "cosmological constant," which is one possibility for the dark energy, also will come under the telescope's scrutiny. The "gravity" of dark energy is repulsive. It pushes the universe apart and overwhelms ordinary gravity, the attractive force exerted by all matter in the universe. Dark energy is invisible, but astronomers will be able to see its influence on clusters of galaxies that formed within the last few billion years.

"With the South Pole Telescope we can look at when galaxy clusters formed and how they formed. That is critically dependent on the nature of the dark energy, this elusive component of the universe," said Carlstrom, who heads the project. "We've only known about dark energy for a few years. No one really knows what it is."

"One of our main goals is to figure out what the dark energy is," said center Director Bruce Winstein, the University's Samuel K. Allison Distinguished Service Professor in Physics. "Is it a cosmological constant or is it dynamical? The South Pole Telescope holds the promise to give us a lot of new, valuable information on this."

Understanding dark energy is one of the key scientific questions called out in the Astronomical Decadal Survey. In the survey, astronomers identified a South Pole telescope as one of their highest-priority projects for the next 10 years. "It's a way of taking the next step in understanding this crazy new cosmology that we find ourselves in," said astronomer Tony Stark of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics.

First described just nine years ago, dark energy is a mysterious force so powerful that it will decide the fate of the universe. Having already overruled the laws of gravity, it is pushing galaxies away from one another, causing the universe to expand at an ever faster rate.

Though dark energy is believed to account for 70 percent of the universe's mass, it is invisible and virtually undetectable. Nobody knows what it is, where it is or how it behaves.

Solving the mystery of dark energy is would explain the history and future of the universe and generate new understanding of physical laws that, applied to human invention, almost certainly will change the way we live -- just as breakthroughs in quantum mechanics brought us the computer chip.

Swinging its massive mirror skyward, the South Pole Telescope (SPT) for the last few months has begun to search the southern polar heavens for shreds of evidence of the elusive stuff. Controlled remotely from the University of Chicago, the $19.2 million telescope has quickly succeeded in its first mission: finding unknown galaxy clusters, clues to the emergence of dark energy.

The cold, dry atmosphere above the South Pole will allow the SPT to more easily detect the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB), the afterglow of the big bang, with minimal interference from water vapor. On the electromagnetic spectrum, the CMB falls somewhere between heat radiation and radio waves.

The CMB is largely uniform, but it contains tiny ripples of varying density and temperature. These ripples reflect the seeds that, through gravitational attraction, grew into the galaxies and galaxy clusters visible to astronomers in the sky today. The SPT’s first key science project will be to study small variations in the CMB to determine if dark energy began to affect the formation of galaxy clusters by fighting against gravity over the last few billion years.

Galaxy clusters (image at top) are groups of galaxies, the largest celestial bodies that gravity can hold together. Our galaxy, the Milky Way, is in one of these clusters, which actually change with time.

The CMB allows astronomers to take snapshots of the infant universe, when it was only 400,000 years old. No stars or galaxies had yet formed. If dark energy changed the way the universe expanded, it would have left its “fingerprints” in the way that it forced galaxies apart over the deep history of time. Different causes would produce a different pattern in the formation of galaxy clusters as reflected in the distortion of the CMB.

According to one idea, dark energy could be Einstein’s cosmological constant: a steady force of nature operating at all times and in all places. Einstein introduced the cosmological constant into his theory of general relativity to accommodate a stationary universe, the dominant idea of the day. If Einstein’s idea is correct, scientists will find that dark energy was much less influential in the universe five billion years ago than it is today.

“Clusters weren’t around in the early universe. They took a long time to evolve,” Carlstrom said.

Another version of the dark energy theory, called quintessence, suggests a force that varies in time and space. Some scientists even suggest that there is no dark energy at all, and that gravity merely breaks down on vast intergalactic scales.

Scientists expect the telescope to detect thousands, or even tens of thousands, of galaxy clusters within a few years.

The giant telescopes components had to be custom-built by scientists and craftsmen in several different parts of the world, then shipped to Antarctica in pieces for final assembly. The largest sections of the telescope were carefully designed so each could fit into ski-equipped military transport planes. It took 25 flights to ferry 260 tons of telescope components.

"We have to get these pieces into place to within 1/2000th of an inch of accuracy," said Jeff McMahon, 29, a postdoctoral physics student. "If you move, you risk screwing it up, so you stand motionless at 20 degrees below zero."

Posted by Casey Kazan.

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Source:

http://www-news.uchicago.edu/releases/07/070226.southpole.shtml

Comments

This is an exellent piece of article and my most favored subject.I liked it.

BORING!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! lame.

How about Dark Energy being the leftovers from the original force (The Big Bang) that started the expansion of the universe? Looking backwards in time by looking at the farther reaches of the universe, you naturally see the faster expansion then. Gravity will eventually overcome that expansion, draw everything back in, have another Big Bang, and start the whole damn thing over again.

DARK ENERGY IDENTIFIED

Based on laboratory simulations, I believe I have identified dark energy as the energy contained in traveling gas shoch waves.

This is because a low pressure wake is established on the downstream side of the star, after the shock passes.
For details see: ISBN 978-1-4343-0661-6(sc)

Planet X -The Hottest Mystery in Science:

* National Geographic (November 19, 2008): Dark Matter Proof Found Over Antarctica? /(Planet X?)- High-energy electrons captured over Antarctica could reveal the presence of a nearby but MYSTERIOUS ASTROPHYSICAL OBJECT that's bombarding Earth with cosmic rays, researchers say...
* LiveScience (06 June 2008): Antarctic Ice Causes Glacial 'Earthquakes' /(Planet X?):
Scientists have discovered their first icequake, if you will — a movement of a huge stream of ice in Antarctica that creates seismic waves, just like an earthquake, and can be felt hundreds of miles away... These ice-driven seismic waves had the force of a magnitude 7 earthquake...
* ECOLOGICAL EVIDENCE from Previous PLANET X Passages... Details:
http://cristiannegureanu.blogspot.com/2009/03/big-melt-seen-in-antarctic-past-and.html

It ia a very timely news about a hot topic in cosmology. The dark matter and the dark energy are both enigmatic about the source of their physical nature. The former appears to be non-interactive with the visible matter. Most likely it has to be some kind of non-baryonic matter, e.g. heavy neutral quarks. These may well be the constituents of the primordial matter that was born at the big bang and got frozen as such due to non-interactive force fields that came up soon after the creation and gave rise to the visible matter of the universe. The dark energy is merely a kind of repulsive gravity field that governs the interaction between the frozen non-baryonic dark matter and the baryonic visible matter.It may well be the type of interaction field that gave rise to very quick initial inflation of the newly born universe, consisting of the primordial heavy quark matter. Such ideas have been presented by the author in an essay ' Mysteries of the Universe - a perspective ' that is available on the website essay competition conducted by The Foundational Questions Institute located in Pennsylvania .

It is a considerable fact that Sun is the centre of our life rather it may be said that sun is the basic source of our life. Living inside the solar system we can not see anything beyond 150 million kilometer in the darken part of earth, but for other reasons we have been watching hundred of light years away various space objects and mysteries i.e. asteroids, milky ways, galaxies, supernovas, white dwarfs, nebulas, black holes, extra solar systems etc. that is other wise called at “mysteries of space mirror” and it can prove that sun is the only luminous body and only star in the total universe.
Visit: - www.spacemirrormystery.com for details.

The Basic Implications Of E=Total[m(1 + D)]

a recapitulation


A. Its essential statement

"Extrapolation of the expansion of the universe backwards in time to the early hot dense "Big Bang" phase, using general relativity, yields an infinite density and temperature at a finite time in the past. At age 10^-35 seconds the Universe begins with a cataclysm that generates space and time, as well as all the matter and energy the Universe will ever hold."

E = Energy content of the universe
m = mass content of the universe
D = distance, Total = in all spatial directions, from the point of Big-Bang, of singularity's energy-mass superposition

At D=0, E was = m and both E and m were, together, all the energy and matter the Universe will ever hold. Since the onset of the cataclysm, E remains constant and m diminishes as D increases.
The increase of D is the initial inflation, followed by the ongoing expansion, of what became the galactic clusters.

At 10^-35 seconds, D was already a fraction of a second above zero. This is when gravity starts. This is what started gravity. At this instance starts the energetic space texture, starts the straining of the space texture, and starts the space-texture-memory, gravity, that most probably will eventually overcome expansion and initiate re-impansion back to singularity.


B. Some of its further essential implications beyond Einstein-Hubble and re classical-quantum physics

And again and again : "On The Origin Of Origins"
http://www.the-scientist.com/community/posts/list/160/122.page#2753

1. It promotes commonsensical scientific critical thinking beyond Einstein-Hubble.

The universe is the archetype of quantum within classical physics, which is the fractal oneness of the universe.

Astronomically there are two physics. A classical Newtonian physics behaviour of and between galactic clusters, and a quantum physics behaviour WITHIN the galactic clusters.

The onset of big-bang's inflation, the cataclysmic resolution of the Original Superposition, started gravity, with formation - BY DISPERSION - of galactic clusters that behave as classical Newtonian bodies and continuously reconvert their original pre-inflation masses back to energy, thus fueling the galactic clusters expansion, and with endless quantum-within-classical intertwined evolutions WITHIN the clusters in attempt to delay-resist this reconversion.

2. There is no call, no need, for any dark energy. The energy of the universe is conserved. The mass of the universe is conserved in the form of energy, the energy fueling the clusters expansion. At the next universal singularity, at the next D = 0, there will again be E = m for a small fraction of a second...just wait and see...

Following Newton (1) gravity is decreased when mass is decreased and (2) acceleration of a body is given by dividing the force acting upon it by its mass. By plain common sense the combination of those two 'laws' may explain the accelerating cosmic expansion of galaxy clusters and the laws that drive it, based on the E/ m/ D relationship suggested above..

3. There is no call, no need, for a Higgs Particle.

The resolution of energy-mass superposition is reverted when D = 0. Shockingly sad, but must be soberingly faced rationally.


C. Its implications re the origin and nature of life beyond Darwin, re selection for survival

For Nature, Earth's biosphere is one of the many ways of temporarily constraining an amount of energy within a galaxy within a galactic cluster, for thus avoiding, as long as possible, spending this particularly constrained amount as part of the fuel that maintains the clusters expansion.

Genes are THE Earth's organisms and ALL other organisms are their temporary take-offs.

For Nature genes are genes are genes. None are more or less important than the others. Genes and their take-offs, all Earth organisms, are temporary energy packages and the more of them there are the more enhanced is the biosphere, Earth's life, Earth's temporary storage of constrained energy. This is the origin, the archetype, of selected modes of survival.

The early genes came into being by solar energy and lived a very long period solely on direct solar energy. Metabolic energy, the indirect exploitation of solar energy, evolved at a much later phase in the evolution of Earth's biosphere.


Dov Henis
(Comments from 22nd century)
Updated Life's Manifest May 2009
http://www.physforum.com/index.php?showtopic=14988&st=480&#entry412704
http://www.the-scientist.com/community/posts/list/140/122.page#2321

Physics Laws May Vary Throughout Calactic Clusters
2010 Rethink Astronomy And The Universe


A. Physics laws vary throughout the universe
http://www.swinburne.edu.au/chancellery/mediacentre/media-centre/news/2010/09/physics-laws-vary-throughout-the-universe

Not "exactly" so. Not throughout the universe, maybe yes throughout the galactic clusters.


B. Rethink Astronomy And The Universe

Rethink Astronomy And The Universe.
even without Quantum Unique Ergodicity, but with plain commonsense.

Galactic clusters formed by dispersion, not by conglomeration. The proof of this is their behaviour, including acceleration, as Newtonian bodies.

These bodies formed at the start of inflation, when all energy was still in mass format, and the inflation was the start of reconversion of cosmic mass into energy. Cosmic expansion acceleration rate differs for each galactic cluster, proceeding according to Newton's laws, proportional to the various galactic clusters' masses.

All mass formats (not just life) are subject to natural selection.
Natural selection is delaying conversion of mass to the energy fueling cosmic expansion.
Cosmic expansion is reconversion of all mass to energy.

Evolution derives from the processes of mass-to-energy reconversion. The routes and rates of evolution vary with the rates of the reconversion, which - in turn - vary with the masses of the galactic clusters.


Dov Henis
(Comments From The 22nd Century)
http://www.the-scientist.com/community/user/profile/1655.page

Cosmic Evolution Simplified
http://www.the-scientist.com/community/posts/list/240/122.page#4427
Seed of Human-Chimp Genomes Diversity
http://pulse.yahoo.com/_2SF3CJJM5OU6T27OC4MFQSDYEU/blog/articles/53079
Evolution, Natural Selection, Derive From Cosmic Expansion
http://darwiniana.com/2010/09/05/the-question-reductionists-fear/

Hi, Have had this question bugging me for some time. Tried to ask Nasa NO answer. Here goes. Space expands and contracts,One thought if space imploded would that mean something would have to happen to dark matter? Thanks for your time. Carol O'Gwin

Time to accept reality. Dark E/m and Higgs YOK. Definitely YOK!

Energy-Mass Poles Of the Universe

Again and again:

The universe is a two-poles entity, an all-mass and an all-energy poles.

Singularity and the Big Bang MUST have happened with the smallest base universe particles, the gravitons, that MUST be both energy and mass, even if all of them are inert mass just one smallest fraction of a second at the pre-Bing Bang singularity. All mass formats evolve from gravitons that convert into energy i.e. escape their gravitons shatters-clusters, becoming mass formats in motion, i.e. energy. And they all end up again as mass in a repeat universal singularity.

Universe expansion and re-contraction proceed simultaneously.

Graviton is the elementary particle of the universe. The gravitons are compacted into the universal inert singularity mass only for the smallest fraction of a second, when all the gravitons of the universe are compacted together, inert, with zero distance between all of them. This state is feasible and mandated by their small size and by their hence weak force.

The Big Bang is the shattering of the short-lived singularity mass into fragments that later became galactic clusters. This is inflation. The shattering is the start of movement of the shatters i.e. the start of reconversion of mass into energy, mass in motion. This reconversion proceeds at a constant rate since the big bang, since the annealing-tempering of singularity and the start of resolution of gravitons. The release of gravitons from their shatters-clusters proceeds at constant rate due to their weak specific force due to their small size.

Gravity is propensity of energy reconversion to mass.
Inflation and expansion are per Newton.

Since the Big Bang galactic clusters are losing mass at constant rate. Mass, gravitons, continue escaping at constant rate from their Big Bang fragments-clusters thus becoming energy, mass in motion, thus thrusting the clusters. Constant thrust and decreasing galactic clusters weight accelerate the separation of clusters from each other. Plain common sense.

A commonsensible conjecture is that the Universe Contraction is initiated following the Big-Bang event, as released moving gravitons (energy) deliver their thrust to other particles and are collected by and stored in black holes at very low energy levels steadily leading to the re-formation of the Universe Singularity, simultaneously with expansion, i.e. that universal expansion and contraction are going on simultaneously.

The conjectured implications is that the Universe is a product of A Single Universal Black Hole with an extremely brief singularity of ALL the gravitons of the universe, which is feasible and possible and mandated because gravitation is a very weak force due to the small size of the gravitons, the primal mass-energy particles of the universe.


Dov Henis (comments from 22nd century)
http://universe-life.com/


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